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The work of the Council of Europe for democracy is strongly based on education: education in schools, and education as a lifelong learning process of practising democracy, such as in non-formal learning activities. Human rights education and education for democratic citizenship form an integral part of what we have to secure to make democracy sustainable.
Hate speech is one of the most worrying forms of racism and discrimination prevailing across Europe and amplified by the Internet and social media. Hate speech online is the visible tip of the iceberg of intolerance and ethnocentrism. Young people are directly concerned as agents and victims of online abuse of human rights; Europe needs young people to care and look after human rights, the life insurance for democracy.
Bookmarks is published to support the No Hate Speech Movement youth campaign of the Council of Europe for human rights online. Bookmarks is useful for educators wanting to address hate speech online from a human rights perspective, both inside and outside the formal education system. The manual is designed for working with learners aged 13 to 18 but the activities can be adapted to other age ranges.
Prévue par le Traité de Lisbonne, l'adhésion de l'Union européenne à la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme est appelée à devenir un événement majeur dans l'histoire juridique européenne, car elle permettra enfin aux particuliers et aux entreprises de soumettre au contrôle de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme les actes des institutions de l'Union européenne, dont l'importance croissante dans la vie de tous les jours n'est plus à démontrer.
Au terme de presque trois années de négociations, un projet de traité permettant cette adhésion a été adopté le 5 avril 2013. A la lumière de ce projet, l'ouvrage analyse de façon synthétique, dans un langage simple mais rigoureux, les raisons, les moyens et les effets de l'adhésion de l'Union européenne à la Convention.
Le droit à des élections libres figure parmi les droits les plus difficiles à appréhender : principe objectif et indispensable de toute société démocratique, il est aussi un droit subjectif et fondamental invocable par tout citoyen. Droit individuel d'une part, il n'a de sens que dans le cadre d'un exercice collectif. D'autre part, ce même droit, associé au droit de vote et au droit d'éligibilité, requiert une mise en oeuvre démocratique qui mobilise en réalité beaucoup d'autres droits et libertés, que ce soit avant, pendant et après l'élection proprement dite. C'est aussi un des droits les plus valorisé au Conseil de l'Europe en ce qu'il participe à la promotion de la « démocratie véritable » qui sert de pilier à l'Organisation aux côtés de la prééminence du droit et du respect des libertés fondamentales.
L'ouvrage passe au crible les principaux textes et sources du droit du Conseil de l'Europe en la matière : conventions, résolutions, recommandations, lignes directrices sans compter l'abondante jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme.
Cet ouvrage s'adresse aux praticiens du droit, aux étudiants, mais, plus largement, à tous ceux qui s'intéressent au couple Europe et démocratie.
Just what are your human rights, and how does the Council of Europe protect them? This small book tells the story simply and clearly, making a complicated issue straightforward. It offers examples illustrating each right in the European Convention on Human Rights, and short explanations placing the European Court of Human Rights in the wider context of other Council of Europe activities that also promote the same ideals. As informed citizens of Europe, we all need to be aware of human rights and of the importance of maintaining and promoting them. Europe has a good story to tell about human rights and this book tells it.
The Council of Europe, after 40 years of activities with Roma, is intensifying its commitment to monitoring and improving their situation and to involving their representatives in the creation of the policies which concern them.This publication, a reference work and an analysis intended to further knowledge and inspire reflection on the issues, presents a summary of the relevant adopted texts and activities by placing them in a historical perspective. The facts, all too often isolated, must be given greater visibility to increase their legibility - beyond a simple summary - and foster a long-term vision.Devised to be useful to both political decision makers and to administrative representatives - at European, national and local levels - and to activists in non-governmental organisations, this work will interest everyone concerned by the situation of Roma in Europe.
This publication is the result of the Edgeryders project, an online dialogue platform run by the Council of Europe with a view to promoting discussion with young people on the challenges of their transition to working life.
Given that the imagination and the experiences of young citizens can only be understood in the context of horizontal relations (learning though sharing and joint management) in line with the networking approach, which restores the significance of individual effort and provides innovative solutions, a programme such as Edgeryders can provide a future-oriented alternative.
In turn, institutions must show creativity. It is no longer a case of managing inertia, but above all of creating a balance between what the public authorities can do and what they can facilitate. By adopting a spirit of co-operation, the authorities can encourage the sharing of responsibilities, ideas, goods and values, while opening up to mutual learning.
Nevertheless, this type of interaction is only possible if two conditions are met. Firstly, institutions must show a clear desire to ensure unprecedented scope for dialogue with young people by ascribing a high value to the proposals that emerge from the contacts among and with young citizens. Secondly, young people's interest in public affairs must be maintained in the long term by shoring up the online exchange with concrete evidence of legitimacy. This publication is intended to help meet these two conditions.
The 50th anniversary of the European Social Charter presents the opportunity for a comprehensive and informative review of one of the Council of Europe's fundamental treaties.What are its origins? Which states does it cover? What are its strengths? What are the new challenges that the Charter needs to address?This dynamic and accessible publication allows the reader to find out more about an instrument that is of vital importance for the protection of human rights in Europe and elsewhere.
The essays in this book present, for the first time in published form, a systematic comparative overview of cultural heritage policy and its impact - specifically in the field of immovable heritage such as archaeological and historic sites - in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
The studies focus on the decade from 2003 to 2013 that followed the traumatic and often violent upheavals associated with the breakdown of communism. That same period also saw a shift in the policy of the European Union and the Council of Europe in support of cultural heritage policies in the region, which led to the launching of the "Ljubljana Process: rehabilitating our common heritage". The challenges gradually moved from encouraging professionals to adopt European standards and realising the potential of heritage to build bridges between peoples and to foster reconciliation, towards highlighting its wider benefits as a catalyst of economic development for the local economy and the quality of life of citizens.
Theorists and practitioners will gain a better insight into the value of cultural heritage and the specificity of cultural heritage policies in South-East Europe, as well as the underlying facts, vision, context and impact of the Ljubljana Process. This will encourage questioning of existing public policies, as well as the promotion and affirmation of cultural heritage within a new "culture of development".
In many European countries, the Roma and Traveller populations are still denied basic human rights and suffer blatant racism. They remain far behind others in terms of educational achievement, employment, housing and health standards, and they have virtually no political representation.Anti-Gypsyism continues to be widespread and is compounded by a striking lack of knowledge among the general population about the history of repression of Roma in Europe. In times of economic crisis, the tendency to direct frustration against scapegoats increases - and Roma and Travellers appear to be easy targets.This report presents the first overview of the human rights situation of Roma and Travellers, covering all 47 member states of the Council of Europe. Its purpose is to encourage a constructive discussion about policies towards Roma and Travellers in Europe today, focusing on what must be done in order to put an end to the discrimination and marginalisation they suffer.
Right to Remember is a self-contained educational resource for all those wishing to promote a deeper awareness of the Roma Genocide and combat discrimination. The handbook is based on the principles of human rights education, and places remembrance as an aspect of learning about, through and for human rights.
Strengthening the identity of Roma young people is a priority for the Roma Youth Action Plan of the Council of Europe. This implies the creation of an environment where they can grow up free from discrimination and confident about their identity and future perspectives, while appreciating their history and their plural cultural backgrounds and affiliations.
The Roma Genocide carried out before and during the Second World War has deeply impacted on Roma communities across Europe and plays a central role in understanding the prevailing antigypsyim and discrimination against Roma. Learning about the Genocide is very important for all young people. For Roma young people it is also a way to understand what was perpetrated against their communities, and to help them to com to terms with their identity and situation today.
Involving young people, including Roma youth, in researching, discussing and discovering the meanings of the Roma Genocide is a way to involve them as agents and actors in their own understanding of human rights and of history.
Right to Remember includes educational activities, as well as ideas for commemoration events, and information about the Genocide and its relevance to the situation of the Roma people today. It has been designed primarily for youth workers in non-formal settings, but it will be useful for anyone working in education, including in schools.
The Lisbon Recognition Convention, developed by the Council of Europe and UNESCO, is the main international legal text on the international recognition of qualifications and has been ratified by more than 50 countries. Few Council of Europe conventions have achieved a greater number of ratifications, and the political importance of the Lisbon Recognition Convention is very considerable. The recognition of qualifications is a necessary, if not sufficient, condition for both student and labour mobility.
To mark the 15th anniversary of the convention, this book examines some of the challenges to the international recognition of qualifications. The convention is an essential legal text, but it needs to be put into better practice. How can learners use their degrees and qualifications in a new country, without losing the real value of those qualifications? The authors, who come from a variety of backgrounds, review the policies and practice of recognition, link recognition to the broader higher education policy debate and consider the role of recognition in enabling individuals to move freely across borders.
Recommendation CM/Rec(2012)11 on the role of public prosecutors outside the criminal justice system complements Recommendation Rec(2000)19 on the role of public prosecution in the criminal justice system which was adopted in autumn 2000. Together these two recommendations set European standards for prosecutorial activities with a comprehensive set of principles defining the status, powers and practice of the public prosecution service for all areas of law in a modern democratic State. Whatever the nature of their responsibilities, whether they be criminal, civil, administrative law or other, it behooves public prosecutors to carry them out in full accordance with the rule of law, human rights and other principles which are fundamental to all democratic societies.
This recommendation draws upon a number of sources as well as on the practice of the prosecution services of many Council of Europe member States that enjoy extensive powers outside the criminal justice system. A report, prepared in 2008 at the request of the Consultative Council of European Prosecutors (CCPE) of the Council of Europe, not only illustrated the diversity among legal systems but also showed that public prosecutors in most of the Council of Europe's 47 member States are vested with duties that extend beyond the criminal justice system of their countries. Such powers are based on the various branches of law, with the aim of protecting the public interest as well as the rights and legitimate interests of individuals, especially members of socially vulnerable population groups.
Overall, the recommendation represents a step forward in strengthening the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, as the manner in which public prosecutors exercise their role, inside and outside the criminal justice system, is crucial to the protection of these rights and freedoms.
In the early 21st century, poverty, impoverishment and inequalities are increasing across the European continent. These phenomena not only weaken the social cohesion of European societies, they also violate human rights, including social and civil and political rights, and question the functioning of democracy. How can people living in poverty make their voices heard in polarised societies, where more than 40% of assets and 25% of revenues are held by 10% of the population?
This guide is the result of two years of collective discussion held within the framework of the project "The human rights of people experiencing poverty". It was prepared with the assistance of many individuals and organisations, including people living in poverty, researchers, associations and representatives of public authorities. As well as offering a critique of the current situation, analysing inequality and poverty through the prism of human rights, democracy and redistributive policies, the guide also invites the reader to explore the possibilities of a renewed strategy to fight poverty in order to restore a sense of social justice. It makes proposals that aim to overcome the stigmatisation and categorisation of people, opening pathways of learning to build well-being through sharing, avoiding waste and by enhancing public awareness around the principle of human dignity as a human right for all.
Peaceful, prosperous, democratic and respectful of people's rights, building Europe is an ongoing challenge. For many years it seemed that Europeans lived on a continent of shared values and a common destiny. No one paid attention to the alarm bells warning of growing divisions across the continent, which have become more insistent since the economic and social crisis. Europe and its values, previously taken for granted, are now being contested. These clouds are casting a shadow across Europe's future, and old demons, long dormant, have started to raise their voices again.
With a deepening values divide there is an urgent need for public debate and a reconsideration of how Europeans can strengthen the European project. Is a "Europe united in diversity" still feasible? Can a consensus be forged on a set of values pertaining to a common European identity? What should be done to preserve European unity?
The Council of Europe, with its membership covering Europe from Vladivostok to Lisbon and from Reykjavik to Ankara, and its mission to promote democracy, human rights and the rule of law, provides an excellent framework for discussing the current state of thinking and dynamics behind the concept of European identity.
For these reasons, the Council of Europe, together with the École nationale d'administration in Strasbourg, held a series of European Identity Debates featuring eminent personalities from a variety of backgrounds including politics, civil society, academia and the humanities.
This publication presents the 10 European Identity Debates lectures. The authors identify major issues and challenges and provide an original analysis of different aspects of European identity within their fields of expertise. The authors formulate proposals on how to better understand the multifaceted nature of Europe, what it means today to be European, and what should be done in terms of ideas and strategies to keep Europe dynamic and to build a sustainable future.
The right to freedom of expression entails duties and responsibilities and is subject to certain limits, provided for in Article 10.2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which are concerned, among other things, with protecting the rights of others. Identifying what constitutes "hate speech" is especially difficult because this type of speech does not necessarily involve the expression of hatred or feelings.On the basis of all the applicable texts on freedom of expression and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and other bodies, the author identifies certain parameters that make it possible to distinguish expressions which, although sometimes insulting, are fully protected by the right to freedom of expression from those which do not enjoy that protection.
Provided for under the Treaty of Lisbon, the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights is destined to be a landmark in European legal history because it will finally make it possible for individuals and undertakings to apply to the European Court of Human Rights for review of the acts of European Union institutions, which unquestionably play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. After nearly three years of negotiations, a draft agreement on European Union accession was adopted on 5 April 2013. In the light of the draft agreement, this publication offers a concise analysis of the reasons for European Union accession to the Convention, the means by which this is to be achieved and the effects it will have.
La Convention européenne en matière d'adoption des enfants (révisée) (CEAER) a été introduite par le Conseil de l'Europe en 2008 afin d'instituer un cadre moderne dans ce domaine. Elle représente un consensus international sur ce qui constitue une procédure acceptable d'adoption des enfants, en tenant compte des différents points de vue, de la diversité juridique et du patrimoine commun des Etats membres.
Cet ouvrage offre une analyse et un commentaire approfondis de chacun des 30 articles de la convention révisée. Cette étude exhaustive révèle les changements et évolutions intervenus depuis l'élaboration de la Convention de 1967 en matière d'adoption des enfants. C'est une source unique et détaillée d'informations pour les juges, les travailleurs sociaux, les parlementaires et les praticiens de l'adoption sur tous les aspects de la CEAER. Ce texte clair et incisif est divisé en trois parties, débutant par une vue d'ensemble de la convention, suivie d'un examen des principes généraux et s'achevant par les clauses finales.
This book examines the relationship between two policy approaches for managing the cultural diversity of contemporary societies: interculturalism and multiculturalism.
The relationship between these two approaches has been a matter of intense debate in recent years. Some commentators argue that they represent two very different approaches, while others argue that interculturalism merely re-emphasises some of the core elements of present day multiculturalism. The debate arises, in part, because multiculturalism can take a variety of different forms, which makes it difficult to identify its key features in order to compare it with interculturalism. The debate has gained added momentum from the backlash against multiculturalism in recent years, and from the Council of Europe's prominent championing of interculturalism as an alternative approach.
This book aims to clarify the concepts of interculturalism and multiculturalism, and to bring the various arguments together in a way that will assist politicians, policy makers, practitioners and interested lay people to understand the concerns that are driving the different orientations. The book is also intended to facilitate a comparison of the policy implications of interculturalism and multiculturalism. To this end, each chapter concludes with a concise statement of the implications for policy that follow from the viewpoint that has been expressed.
Human rights and the environment have become increasingly interconnected. This updated manual seeks to contribute to a better understanding of this relationship by taking into account the new pertinent case law of the European Court of Human Rights. While the European Convention on Human Rights does not guarantee a specific right to a healthy and sound environment, the general standards deriving from it may nonetheless also apply to environmental matters. The European Court of Human Rights regularly examines complaints in which individuals argue that a breach of their Convention rights is the result of adverse environmental factors.This manual also takes account of the relevant decisions of the European Committee of Social Rights which has interpreted the right to protection of health under the European Social Charter as including a right to a healthy environment.Examples of good national practices have been compiled on the basis of the contributions of several member states and included in an appendix to the manual.The aim is to present the emerging principles on environmental protection in a systematic and accessible way.
A variety of mechanisms has been established in the Council of Europe to monitor compliance with human rights standards.This publication discusses four specific monitoring bodies, namely the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, and the European Committee of Social Rights. By assessing and comparing the monitoring procedures and standard-setting activities of these expert bodies, the authors make an essential contribution to the discourse on the Council of Europe's role - both current and future - with regard to human rights.This book constitutes a rich source of information on the dialogue between the four committees and European states. It is addressed to practitioners, diplomats and decision makers at national level to deepen their understanding of the aims and functioning of Council of Europe monitoring mechanisms. Students and academics will gain a comprehensive insight into the legal bases, mandates and procedures of such mechanisms. Finally, it is hoped that the expert bodies themselves will gain much from the authors' analysis of present-day challenges for monitoring and the impact their implementation standards may have on the development of the European human rights order.
The Council of Europe is the oldest of European institutions. Under the banner of human rights and democracy, it brings together 47 member states, ranging from Finland to Turkey and from Switzerland to Russia. Its Parliamentary Assembly represents over 800 million Europeans and its conventions for the protection of social and fundamental rights are among the most successful in the world. However, this organisation receives little recognition and is still frequently confused with the European Union. Building upon the momentum created during the celebrations of the Council of Europe's 60th anniversary, this publication offers an opportunity to rediscover its history, activities and achievements.
In 1987, the Santiago de Compostela Declaration laid the foundations for the first Council of Europe Cultural Route, highlighting the importance of our rich, colourful and diverse European identities. Today, the Council of Europe Enlarged Partial Agreement (EPA) on Cultural Routes oversees 29 routes connecting culture and heritage across Europe.
Cultural Routes are powerful tools for promoting and preserving these shared and diverse cultural identities. They are a model for grass-roots cultural co-operation, providing important lessons about identity and citizenship through a participative experience of culture. From the European Route of Megalithic Culture with its monuments built as long as 6 000 years ago, to the ATRIUM route of Architecture of Totalitarian Regimes, the routes contain elements of our past which help us to understand the present and to approach the future with confidence.
The Cultural Routes also stimulate thematic cultural tourism in lesserknown parts of the continent, helping to develop economic and social stability in Europe.
This first ever step-by-step guide to the design and management of Council of Europe Cultural Routes will be an essential reference for route managers, project developers, students and researchers in cultural tourism and related subjects. It addresses aspects ranging from the Council of Europe's conventions to co-creation, fund-raising and governance, and it explores a Cultural Route model that has evolved into an exemplary system for sustainable, transnational co-operation and that has proved to be a successful road map for socio-economic development, cultural heritage promotion and intergenerational communication.
The Council of Europe EPA on Cultural Routes is the result of our successful co-operation with the Luxembourg Ministry of Culture and the European Union. Increasingly, other organisations, such as the United Nations World Tourism Organization, are joining this project.
This handbook was funded by the third European Commission/Council of Europe Joint Programme on Cultural Routes.
Ce rapport fait partie d'une série d'analyses internationales des politiques nationales de jeunesse menées par le Conseil de l'Europe, en collaboration et en consultation avec les agences gouvernementales et les ministères responsables du développement et de la mise en oeuvre de la politique de jeunesse, ainsi qu'avec les organisations non gouvernementales de jeunesse. Les analyses sont menées par une équipe internationale qui présente les forces de la politique de jeunesse du pays et, de façon constructive, les défis que ce pays doit relever dans ce domaine, en s'appuyant le cas échéant sur des preuves et des débats de portée internationale.
Le processus des analyses internationales a été introduit en vue de remplir trois fonctions distinctes :
- fournir des conseils sur les politiques nationales de jeunesse ;
- identifier les composantes dont la combinaison pourrait constituer l'approche d'une politique de jeunesse en Europe ;
- contribuer à un processus d'apprentissage lié au développement et à la mise en oeuvre d'une politique de jeunesse.