The OECD Economic Outlook is the OECD's twice-yearly analysis of the major economic trends and prospects for the next two years. The Outlook puts forward a consistent set of projections for output, employment, prices, fiscal and current account balances.
Coverage is provided for all OECD member countries as well as for selected non-member countries. This issue includes a general assessment, chapters summarising developments and providing projections for each individual country, a special chapter on growth prospects and fiscal requirements over the long term, and a statistical annex.
The OECD Economic Outlook is the OECD's twice-yearly analysis of the major economic trends and prospects for the next two years. The Outlook puts forward a consistent set of projections for output, employment, prices, fiscal and current account balances. Coverage is provided for all OECD member countries as well as for selected non-member countries. This issue includes a general assessment, chapters summarising developments and providing projections for each individual country, a special chapter on growth prospects and fiscal requirements over the long term and a statistical annex.
L'OCDE a procédé à des examens de la politique de formation des migrants en Autriche, au Danemark, en Irlande, en Norvège, aux Pays-Bas et en Suède, et s'est penchée sur l'expérience de nombreux pays en matière de formation de cette population. Cette publication offre des données comparatives sur l'accès, la participation, et les résultats scolaires des élèves issus de l'immigration par rapport aux autres élèves, et recense une série d'options pour l'action publique, à la lumière d'expériences réussies.
This 15th edition of the Agricultural Outlook edition presents the outlook for commodity markets during the 2009 to 2018 period, and analyses world market trends for the main agricultural products, as well as biofuels. It provides an assessment of agricultural market prospects for production, consumption, trade, stocks and prices of the included commodities.
This edition of the Outlook was prepared in a period of unprecedented financial market turmoil and rapidly deteriorating global economic prospects. Because macroeconomic conditions are changing so quickly, this report complements the standard baseline projections with an analysis of revised short-term GDP prospects and alternative GDP recovery paths. Lower GDP scenarios result in lower commodity prices, with reductions in crop and biofuel prices about one-half those for livestock products. A sensitivity analysis to highly uncertain crude oil prices shows the important links between energy and agricultural prices. The Outlook also reports on a survey of various actors in the agri-food chain in terms of the current impacts of the global economic crisis and credit market constraints.
The issue of food security and the capacity of the agricultural sector to meet the rising demand for food remains very high on the international political agenda. This report provides a brief overview of critical factors such as land availability, productivity gains, water usage and climate change, and suggests that agricultural production could be significantly increased, provided there is sufficient investment in research, infrastructure and technological change, particularly in developing countries.
Les Comptes nationaux des pays de l'OCDE, Principaux agrégats couvrent le PIB suivant les trois optiques (dépenses, production et revenus), le revenu disponible, l'épargne et la capacité/besoin de financement, la population et l'emploi. Il comprend aussi des tableaux comparatifs basés sur les parités de pouvoir d'achat et taux de change. Les données sont montrées pour 34 pays de l'OCDE et la Zone euro depuis 2005. Les données sont exprimées en monnaie nationale. Ces statistiques sont basées sur le Système de Comptabilité Nationale 1993 (SCN 1993) pour tous les pays à l'exception de l'Australie, d'Israël, du Mexique et des États-Unis présentées sur la base du SCN 2008.
Cette publication est également disponible sous forme de base de données en ligne qui permet aux utilisateurs d'extraire des données et de construire des tableaux et graphiques. Elle est disponible via OECD iLibrary sous le titre Statistiques de l'OCDE sur les comptes nationaux (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-data-fr).
The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Main Aggregates covers expenditure-based GDP, output-based GDP, income-based GDP, disposable income, saving and net lending, population and employment. It includes also comparative tables based on purchasing power parities and exchange rates. Data are shown for 34 OECD countries and the Euro area back to 2005. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA).
Ce rapport annuel dresse un état des mesures prises au cours des douze mois écoulés par les 41 gouvernements adhérents pour renforcer la contribution des Principes directeurs à un meilleur fonctionnement de l'économie mondiale. En neuf ans, les principes directeurs se sont imposés comme l'un des grands instruments mondiaux de la responsabilité d'entreprise comme en témoignent le dernier conseil ministériel de 2009 de l'OCDE et le sommet du G8 de L'Aquila. Cette édition 2009 contient les résultats de la Table ronde de l'OCDE sur la responsabilité des entreprises : « Pouvoir des consommateurs et conduite responsable des entreprises ».
Regions in Switzerland are performing well in many respects. They have high levels of GDP per capita and low unemployment rates, and some regions show impressive growth rates. In addition, Swiss regions have not been confronted with the challenges faced by many similar regions in the OECD, such as limited access to services and population decline due to ageing or emigration. Regional labour productivity growth still requires further policy attention.
In order to improve regional economic performance, Switzerland introduced the New Regional Policy (NRP) in 2008, following the 2002 OECD Territorial Review of Switzerland. The NRP reflects a clear shift of focus from infrastructure and financial assistance towards economic support for the creation of value added to the regional economy. The current review provides recommendations on how the impact of the NRP can be increased through extended territorial coverage, inter-cantonal co-operation, and co-ordination of sectoral policies. This review also takes a close look at regional innovation policies, arguing that a division of roles should be achieved, with the federal level funding research and technology transfer on a country-wide basis, and cantons providing innovation support according to functional areas.
Public administration has entered a new age. In the 1980s, "less" government was the prevailing idea; in the 1990s and early 21st century, "New Public Management" was the dominant theme. Today, public administration is moving in new directions. Reforms are focusing on the quality of services for citizens and businesses and on the efficiency of administration (the "back office" of government). The OECD is studying these new trends in a multi-annual, cross-country project called "Value for Money in Government".
This publication focuses on the Netherlands and covers:
Chapter 1 - Introduction: Value for money in government
Chapter 2 - Benchmarks for the Dutch central government
Chapter 3 - Overview of previous Dutch reforms
Chapter 4 - Reforming the Dutch central government: Recommendations
This conference proceedings provides the papers presented at the OECD/European Commission joint seminar on Naturalisation and the Socio-Economic Integration of Children held in October 2010 in Brussels. It takes stock of the current knowledge regarding the links between host-country nationality and socio-economic integration of immigrants and their children, building on novel evidence on this issue. It also discusses the role of nationalisation as a tool in the overall framework for immigration and integration policy, with the aim of identifying good practices.
Since 2000, the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been growing at an annual rate of between 8%-9%, making it one of the ten highest performing economies in the world. Kazakhstan alone attracts more foreign direct investment than all other Central Asian countries together. To date, the country's strong economic performance has been driven largely by its natural resources sector. The oil and gas sectors alone attract three quarters of foreign investment inflows. However, Kazakhstan's non-energy sectors also have competitive advantages that could be potential new sources for growth.
In 2009 Kazakhstan launched a far-reaching programme to diversify its sources of foreign direct investment. To support this effort, it asked the OECD to undertake a three-year Sector Competitiveness Review. This report represents the first phase of this Review, which is an assessment and strategy to help Kazakhstan enhance the competitiveness of non-energy sectors including agribusiness, fertilizers, logistics, business services and information technology. While it acknowledges that the government has successfully implemented a first generation of business climate reforms, the report recommends that sector-specific policy barriers be further addressed. For example, policy makers could stimulate quality improvements and modernise production in some sectors by facilitating access to finance, attracting modern retailers and addressing skills gaps in the workforce.
This report presents the third OECD review of Norway's environmental policy performance. Previous reviews were published in 2001 and 1993. Topics covered in this report include greening growth, implementation of environmental policies, international cooperation, climate change, waste management and the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), and nature and biodiversity.
All OECD governments want to give parents more choice in their work and family decisions. This book looks at the different ways in which governments support families. It seeks to provide answers to questions like: Is spending on family benefits going up, and how does it vary by the age of the child? Has the crisis affected public support for families? What is the best way of helping adults to have the number of children they desire? What are the effects of parental leave programmes on female labour supply and on child well-being? Are childcare costs a barrier to parental employment and can flexible workplace options help? What is the best time for mothers to go back to work after childbirth? And what are the best policies to reduce poverty among sole parents?
The Green Growth Strategy, outlined in this book, provides concrete recommendations and measurement tools to support countries' efforts to achieve economic growth and development, while at the same time ensure that natural assets continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well being relies. The strategy proposes a flexible policy framework that can be tailored to different country circumstances and stages of development.
Cette édition de l'Étude Économique de l'OCDE des États-Unis pour 2010 couvre rééquilibrer l'économie, les finances publiques, et changement climatique.
The 2011 edition of National Accounts of OECD Countries: General Government Accounts is an annual publication, dedicated to government finance which is based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993). It includes tables showing government aggregates and balances for the production, income and financial accounts as well as detailed tax and social contribution receipts and a breakdown of expenditure of general government by function, according to the harmonized international classification, COFOG.
These detailed accounts are available for the general government sector. Data also cover the following sub-sectors, according to availability: central government, state government, local government and social security funds.
The publication covers 33 of the 34 OECD countries. Data are expressed in national currencies and cover the period from 2003 to 2010.
The data in this publication are also available on line via www.oecd-ilibrary.org under the title OECD National Accounts Statistics, General Government Accounts (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga-data-en).
Recent global shocks, such as the 2008 financial crisis, have driven policy makers and industry strategists to re-examine how to prepare for and respond to events that can begin locally and propagate around the world with devastating effects on society and the economy. This report considers how the growing interconnectedness in the global economy could create the conditions and vectors for rapid and widespread disruptions. It looks at examples of hazards and threats that emerge from the financial world, cyberspace, biological systems and even the solar system, to reflect on what strategic capacities are called for to improve assessment, mapping, modelling, response and resilience to such large scale risks.
Until recently, the term "political settlement" has been used almost interchangeably with "peace agreement". But it has broader implications: political settlements span the continuum from negotiated peace agreements to long-term historical development -- in the latter sense approaching the concept of a social contract. Generally speaking, every political regime that is not in the midst of an all-out civil war over its basic parameters is based on some kind of settlement. The adoption of a political settlement lens could therefore bridge conceptual differences between the approaches and endeavours of peacebuilding and statebuilding.
Commissioned by the International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, this publication provides an overview of key definitions, components and concepts of political settlements, based on existing literature. It also examines the potential impact of donor activities on political settlements and highlights possible implications for donor engagement and support.
Intégration au marché mondial des capitaux
Thèmes speciaux : Logement, Environnement
Cette édition 2011 des études économiques de l'OCDE concerne l'économie autrichienne. Cette édition inclut un chapitre spécial sur la réforme du système de santé.
This report examines the ways in which wider policies can be use to support our common development objectives. It focuses on areas requiring collective action by the entire international community, and complements the OECD's continuing work on aid effectiveness and monitoring aid flows.
It starts from two premises. First, policies ranging from trade and investment to tax and fiscal transparency, corporate governance, climate change, resource security and social policy have a profound impact on the prospects for achieving sustainable development. Second, whilst these require action by national governments and regional organisations in both developed and developing countries, in today's interconnected world they also require collective action by the entire international community.
The report covers 18 development policy topics divided into four broad categories: sustainable economic growth, economic governance, the environment and natural resource security, and society. Together these reflect the OECD's mission to promote better policies for better lives.
Concerns about sustainability and the effectiveness of fisheries management on the part of the public have resulted in demand from NGOs, retailers and consumers for assurances that the food they purchase has been sustainably produced. This has led to a number of private entities responding to this demand by establishing eco-labels and certification schemes that claim to provide credible information to the consumer. These labels intend to serve the interest of fishers and processors who need to transmit positive information to the consumer to maintain their markets, and serve consumers by providing information not elsewhere available.
This report considers the growing trend in information requirements for seafood products in general, and in particular to the distinct sustainability features of wild capture fisheries and aquaculture. This work refers primarily to privately-driven certification schemes which have become an established feature of the market for eco-labels in fisheries and aquaculture. The report focuses on private eco-labelling and analyzes the economics of certification schemes, discusses key issues at the interface between public authorities, private labelling schemes, business operators and consumers. Finally, main findings and messages to policy makers are addressed.
The investments needed to deliver sustainable water and sanitation services, including the funds that are needed to operate and maintain the infrastructure, expand their coverage and upgrade service delivery to meet current social and environmental expectations, are huge. Yet, most systems are underfunded with dire consequences for water and sanitation users, especially the poorest. Providing sustainable drinking water supply and sanitation services requires sound financial basis and strategic financial planning to ensure that existing and future financial resources are commensurate with investment needs as well as the costs of operating and maintaining services. Some of the key messages of the report are:
- WSS generate substantial benefits for the economy
- Investment needs to generate these benefits are large in both OECD and developing countries
- Tariffs are a preferred funding source, but public budgets and ODA will have a role to play, too
- Markets-based repayable finance is needed to cover high up-front capital investment costs
- Strategic financial planning and other OECD tools can help Governments move forward