Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers

  • Ce dictionnaire réunit, définit et fournit la traduction anglais/français de l'ensemble des termes scientifiques, techniques et généraux les plus utilisés dans les divers domaines des sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers : géologie minière et pétrolière, climatologie, océanographie, géophysique, géomorphologie, hydrogéologie, pédologie, hydrogéologie, sciences de l'environnement... Cette nouvelle édition, entièrement révisée et augmentée, comprend plus de 15 000 termes anglais et plus de 9 000 termes français. En début d'ouvrage, des conseils sont destinés aux lecteurs désirant traduire un article ou rédiger un rapport en anglais.

  • Extrait
    I. Questions
    II. Conceptual Framework
    The Concept of Big Technology
    National Systems of Innovation
    The Concept of the Knowledge Society
    III. The Status of Research, Sources and Literature
    Research and Literature
    IV. Outline
    I. The Origins of ESRO
    The European Reactions to the Sputnik Launch
    First Discussions about the Establishment of a European Organisation Dedicated to Space Research
    Amaldi Meets Auger
    II. Swiss Involvement in the Early Discussions on a European Space Research Organisation Switzerland and the Amaldi/Auger Idea
    Swiss Politics Enters into the Negotiations on the European Space Research Organisation
    III. Swiss Foreign Policy in the Post-WWII Years
    IV. Setting up ESRO
    The Meyrin Conference
    COPERS Activities
    Switzerland and the Work of COPERS
    Alliance-Building in Switzerland
    V. The Case of ELDO
    VI. The Federal State and Science, Technology and Economic Policy in the Early 1960s
    I. Organising for Membership of ESRO
    The Ratification Process
    Institutional Measures
    II. The First Steps of ESRO
    III. Switzerland and ESRO's Science Programme
    The Space Science Activities of Swiss Research Groups
    The Swiss Discussions on the Funding of Space Research
    The Role of the Swiss Science Council Space Science without Special Funding
    IV. ESRO and Swiss Industrial Participation
    The Zenit Sounding Rocket
    The Principle of Fair Returns
    V. Applications Satellites - the First Package Deal
    The Advent of Applications Satellites
    The Interim Intelsat Agreements
    CETS Plans for European Communications Satellites
    The EBU steps in
    The "Comprehensive" Approach - the Causse Report
    The Swiss Attitude towards Applications Satellites
    Switzerland and the Launcher Question
    The Bad Godesberg Conference
    The First Package Deal
    Swiss reactions to the First Package Deal
    The Definitive Intelsat Agreements
    Intelsat as a Turning Point for Swiss Space Policy
    VI. The Post-Apollo Programme and Ariane - the Second Package Deal 1
    The Post-Apollo Programme
    The Birth of the Ariane Project
    The Second Package Deal
    Switzerland and the Second Package Deal
    The Ratification Process
    VII. The Transition from ESRO to ESA
    Developments at European Level
    Ratifying the ESA Convention in Switzerland
    I. The ESRO and ESA Science Programme of the 1970s
    The Second Decade of European Space Science Activities
    Giotto and Hipparcos - Two Major European Missions
    II. Swiss Scientific Participation in the 1970s
    The Space Science Situation in Switzerland in the Late 1960s
    The Development of Swiss Space Science in the 1970s
    Space Research and Swiss Science Policy
    III. The Industrial Component of Swiss Space Activities in the 1970s
    IV. From Development Phase to Operational Use - the Case of the Meteosat and Telecom Programmes
    The User - a New Category of Actor in European Space Policy
    The Meteosat Programme
    The Swiss Meteorologists and the Meteosat Programme
    The Telecom Programme
    Switzerland and the Telecom Programme
    V. The Discussions on a Swiss DBS System
    The Tel-Sat Request
    A DBS System and Swiss Media Policy
    Handling the Tel-Sat Request
    VI. ESA's Other Major Programmes - Ariane and Spacelab
    The Ariane Programme
    The Spacelab Programme
    VII. The Microgravity and Remote Sensing Programmes
    VIII. The Administration of Space Activities in Switzerland
    IX. Setting the Stage for the European Space Policy of the 1990s
    Switzerland and the ESA Ministerial Meetings of 1985 and 1987
    Planning for the 1990s
    The Swiss Influence on the Increase in the Science Programme Budget 308
    ESA's Science Programme of the 1980s and the Horizon 2000 Programme
    The Prodex Programme
    Switzerland and the Decisions of the 1985
    ESA Ministerial Meeting
    Switzerland and the 1987 ESA Ministerial Meeting 321
    Swiss Space Policy at the End of the 1980s
    I. The Importance of Foreign Policy
    II. Space Activities and Swiss Science, Technology and Industrial Policy
    The Rhetorical Strategy
    The Structural Weaknesses of the Swiss Federal
    State in Science, Technology and Industrial Policy
    The Comparison with the Case of Nuclear Technology
    III. Scientists
    IV. Industry
    V. The User Organisations
    VI. The Public
    VII. Closing Words
    Figures, Diagrams, and Pictures
    I. Sources
    Archives and other Unprinted Sources
    Printed Sources
    II. Literature
    Index of names

  • Extrait
    José Maria Dorado Gutiérrez
    lvaro Azcorraga
    José Maria Dorado Gutiérrez and Pedro Sanz-Aranguez
    José Rivacoba and José Maria Dorado Gutiérrez
    José Maria Dorado Gutiérrez and Miguel Angel Sabadell
    José Manuel Sanchez-Ron
    Miguel Angel Sabadell
    Miguel Angel Llorca Palomera et alii
    Miguel Angel Llorca and Pedro Pinto
    Fernando Artigas
    José Maria Dorado Gutiérrez
    Space Activity in Spain. Major Achievements
    Index of names

  • Big Earth Data in Support of the Sustainable Development Goals 2019 presents 27 case studies of "Big Earth Data Science Engineering Program" (CASEarth) on the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicators and sustainability assessments in six SDGs, including: SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 14 (Life below Water), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). These cases provide in-depth, systematic research and evaluation results on the selected SDGs and indicators by means of data, method models, and decision support at global, regional, national and local scales. The 27 case studies covered 20 indicators, with focus varying from constructing databases, building index systems, and evaluating indicator progress. Each case study first clearly lists the corresponding SDG targets and indicators it addresses, and then proceeds with the research methods, data, analysis results, and prospects for future research. It can be seen that Big Earth Data as a new scientific methodology has started demonstrating its great value and potential for applications in monitoring and evaluating SDGs for China and developing countries around the world. The report concludes with a summary of the major progress in Big Earth Data for SDGs and future research priorities.

  • Table des matières

    Chapter 1: Origins
    Chapter 2: The early history of ESRO
    Chapter 3: The early history of ELDO
    Chapter 4: Implementing ESRO’s first scientific programme
    Chapter 5: The science programme in the late 1960s: LAS and COS-B
    Chapter 6: The crisis in ELDO in the late 1960s and the first Package Deal for ESRO
    Chapter 7: ESRO embarks on applications : the telecommunications satellite programme
    Chapter 8: ESRO embarks on applications (with France): Europeanising Meteosat
    Chapter 9: ESRO embarks on applications (with the US): the aeronautical satellite
    Chapter 10: US-European relations: the Post-Apollo programme, Intelsat, and the availability of US launchers
    Chapter 11: European participation in the development of the Space Shuttle: a victory for clean interfaces
    /> Chapter 12: The collapse of ELDO and the Second Package Deal
    Chapter 13: Establishing the European Space Agency and the ESA Convention
    Chapter 14: Negotiating the Science Programme in the 1970s: Hubble, ISPM and Giotto
    Chapter 15: From applications satellites to operating organisations: ECS and Eutelsat
    Chapter 16: From applications satellites to operating organisations: Marots and Inmarsat, Meteosat and Eumetsat
    Chapter 17: From LIIIS to Arianespace
    Chapter 18: Getting Spacelab built
    Chapter 19: Using Spacelab for science
    Chapter 20: Planning ahead for science in the 1980s: Horizon 2000
    Chapter 21: Relaunching ESA: the Ministerial Meetings of 1985 and 1987
    Chapter 22: From Ariane 4 to Ariane 5
    Chapter 23: The European family of launchers
    Chapter 24: The International Space Station
    Chapter 25: International planetary science in the 90s and beyond: Saturn, Mars and ITAR
    Chapter 26: The European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo: I. From conception to development
    Chapter 27: The European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo: II. From development to implementation
    Chapter 28: Earth Observation. From Earthnet to GMES/Copernicus 385
    Annex I: Chronology
    Annex II: ESRO, ELDO and ESA launches and related missions
    Annex III: Planned ESA launches and related missions
    Annex IV: ESRO, ELDO and ESA Council Chairmen and Directors General
    Annex V: Bibliography
    Annex VI: Acronyms
    Annex VII: Index of names
    Annex VIII: Index

  • Both hydrologists and meteorologists need to speak a common scientific language, and this has given rise to the new scientific discipline of hydrometeorology, which deals with the transfer of water and energy across the land/atmosphere interface. Terrestrial Hydrometeorology is the first graduate-level text with sufficient breadth and depth to be used in hydrology departments to teach relevant aspects of meteorology, and in meteorological departments to teach relevant aspects of hydrology, and to serve as an introductory text to teach the emerging discipline of hydrometeorology. The book will be essential reading for graduate students studying surface water hydrology, meteorology, and hydrometeorology. It can also be used in advanced undergraduate courses, and will be welcomed by academic and professional hydrologists and meteorologists worldwide. Additional resources for this book can be found at:

  • Breaking free of the Earth's surface to look down from above is longer a mere dream.  Sophisticated instruments flown on satellites produce streams of data that, when inserted into complex information processes, increase our knowledge of the Earth system. Satellites have now revealed the limits and potential of our planet by making them "visible".
    This book describes how satellite observation offers unique support in fields such as the management of natural environments, risk prevention and post-disaster management.  Beginning with an historical review it then traces how data are constructed from the initial conception of measurements to their interpretation for use in operational systems.  Ongoing sociological surveys sketch-out some of the difficulties to be overcome to allow more widespread use of satellite data.  With the help of concrete examples such as emergency mapping for disaster management or monitoring of water resources, readers are shown how space-based observation offers potential cognitive resources for living on Earth while taking care of it. 

  • Quantifying the timescales of current geological processes is critical for constraining the physical mechanisms operating on the Earth today. Since the Earth's origin 4.55 billion years ago magmatic processes have continued to shape the Earth, producing the major reservoirs that exist today (core, mantle, crust, oceans and atmosphere) and promoting their continued evolution. But key questions remain. When did the core form and how quickly? How are magmas produced in the mantle, and how rapidly do they travel towards the surface? How long do magmas reside in the crust, differentiating and interacting with the host rocks to yield the diverse set of igneous rocks we see today? How fast are volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere? This book addresses these and other questions by reviewing the latest advances in a wide range of Earth Science disciplines: from the measurement of short-lived radionuclides to the study of element diffusion in crystals and numerical modelling of magma behaviour. It will be invaluable reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students,  as well as igneous petrologists, mineralogists and geochemists involved in the study of igneous rocks and processes.

  • The description of ocean water masses is based on the study of their temperature, salinity, and density, virtual genetic imprints which provide identity and movement to water masses. Ocean characteristics and processes involved in exchanges with the atmosphere together with simple dynamic balances give an understanding of a large part of the vast oceanic system.
    This book is enhanced with numerous colored illustrations. It is a reference on regional oceanography updated with extensive results from the last twenty years. The presentation underscores the specificity of each ocean basin using a precise and global approach. Beginning with a brief historical context, it explains the interactions and the role of each ocean basin in the functioning of the planetary ocean. How do we recognize Antarctic Bottom Water in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean? What is the densest water mass? The warmest? Why doesn’t dense water form in the largest ocean basin? What becomes of water that sinks in the Labrador Sea? Why does the ocean play such an important role in climate variations? … Answers can be found in this book.
    Beyond a course in regional oceanography, the text is aimed at students in all fields of marine and environmental science as well as interested secondary school teachers. It also provides a guide to exploring the ocean planet that is comprehensible to any well-informed amateur eager to know the basics.

  • Never was a man so denied a place in history than Father Charles Plumier. Craftsman, illustrator, and engraver, but best known for his work as a botanist, Plumier devoted the better part of his life to collecting and illustrating plants and animals. Working nearly a century before the great eighteen-century describers of the untold number of new organisms flooding into Europe at the time, the major credit for Plumier's contributions to botany and zoology was given to others. Born at Marseille in 1646, Plumier was initially trained at the Convent of the Minims in mathematics and the physical sciences, but soon turned his attention to natural history, taking on the study of botany with great enthusiasm. He so impressed his superiors as a botanist, as well as through his extraordinary talents as an illustrator and engraver, that in 1689 he was appointed naturalist on an expedition to the French possessions in the Antilles for the purpose of collecting objects of natural history. The great success of this voyage, followed by two additional expeditions to the West Indies, provided a life-long pension, and earned him the title of "Botaniste du Roy." Often ill and always anxious about the publication of his work, Plumier spent the last years of his life in his cell at the Minim Convent La Place Royale in Paris compiling his notes and drawings and preparing manuscripts for the press. While on his way to Peru to discover the tree that produces quinine, he suffered a sudden attack of pleurisy and died on 20 November 1704 at the age of 58. Plumier's legacy survives in an enormous body of iconographic material still extant in the collections of the Bibliothèque Centrale du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris. While his botanical contributions have been described in some detail and many of his plant drawings have been published, his influence on zoology has been relatively unexplored and his animal drawings remain largely unpublished until now. This volume, the first of a series of monographs planned for the near future, designed to bring Plumier's extraordinary work to light, imparts life to images that have been essentially lost from public view for more than three centuries.

  • For the first time, this book makes available to a wide readership, not only to an educated audience, high-resolution reproductions of all the 258 paintings of gourds of the genus Cucurbita, figuring about a hundred cultivars, kept at the Bibliothèque centrale of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, made in the 18th century by the talentuous Antoine Nicolas Duchesne, of the Royal Garden in Versailles, a forerunner of genetics and evolution. This book by Dr. Harry Paris, a leading expert of Cucurbitaceae, is written both in English and French and is aimed at scientists (e.g., botanists, geneticists, agronomists, horticulturists, science historians) as well as more general readers including gardeners, above all those very numerous fond of cultivated plants, particularly of Cucurbitaceae. Its large format (320 x 440 mm), the diversity and magnificence of its plates and the beauty of its presentation will also attract bibliophiles. This volume is not only the first publication to contain Duchesne's naming and classification of the three economically most important species of Cucurbita, it also contains Duchesne's summary of his investigations with this genus. The plates are accompanied by reprinting of appropriate abstracts from Duchesne's Essai sur l'histoire naturelle des courges together with, by Harry Paris, commentaries on the illustrations with an analysis of existing published and unpublished documents concerning these plates. As for his work on strawberries, here once again is stressed the unfailing tenaciousness and extraordinary sense of observation of Antoine Nicolas Duchesne coupled with quite original and premonitory evolutionary ideas.

  • In this book, the author describes the framework of his universal subject residing in the spiritual dimension inhabited by Freud's two unconsciouses and three of his own. He constructs a scientific theory of the global cosmos that reveals the connection between the terrestrial subject and the creator of the universe and it's two infinities.

  • Les archives des bibliothèques et des muséums à travers le monde sont pleines de trésors peu visibles et sous-évalués mais peu d'objets sont aussi délicats et inconnus que les peintures de poissons et invertébrés réalisées à la fin du xviie siècle par Isaac Johannes Lamotius sur la minuscule île Maurice dans l'océan Indien et aux Moluques. Seul et coupé de la vie intellectuelle hollandaise de l'époque, accablé par la tâche quasi impossible de gouverner une petite mais indisciplinée communauté de colons hollandais, Lamotius se consola en étudiant la faune et la flore alors inconnues de l'île. Durant son mandat et quelque temps après quand il fut exilé sur l'île de Rosengain dans l'archipel de Banda, il consacra ses temps libres à dessiner et peindre des animaux aquatiques, en particulier des poissons marins. Bien qu'il en produisit sans doute beaucoup plus, il ne reste plus aujourd'hui qu'un jeu de 250 planches en couleurs dont la totalité est reproduite pour la première fois dans le présent volume. Les planches révélées ici, conservées dans le fonds de la Bibliothèque centrale du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle de Paris, ont été dévoilées par Georges Cuvier au début du XIXe siècle. Ce n'est qu'en 1959 que l'un des auteurs, procédant à une étude comparative détaillée de ces planches et d'autres jeux d'illustrations semblables sur lesquels s'appuyaient de nombreuses publications d'histoire naturelle du XVIIIe siècle, les identifia comme réalisées par Lamotius. Ces dessins sont largement supérieurs à tout ce qui se faisait à la même époque. Ils fournissent la première preuve de l'existence de beaucoup des espèces figurées, avec des données sur leur collecte ; la fidélité scientifique est telle que presque toutes ces espèces peuvent être aisément identifiées. Ensemble, ces planches constituent la description la plus ancienne connue de la faune marine de l'île Maurice et, en cela, une des plus anciennes études des poissons et invertébrés marins de tout l'Indo-Ouest Pacifique. Accompagnées de commentaires scientifiques et historiques, ces images renaissent après avoir été perdues de vue par le public durant plus de trois siècles.

  • Chercheur passionné et naturaliste accompli, Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny (1802-1857) a laissé une oeuvre prestigieuse et féconde dont le caractère exceptionnel, par son ampleur, ses implications dans la science actuelle et la diversité des sujets abordés, ne laisse pas d'étonner scientifiques et historiens. En présentant son premier travail sur les foraminifères (microorganismes unicellulaires, pourvus d'une coquille capable de se fossiliser), il signait l'acte de naissance de la Micropaléontologie, sans soupçonner l'importance qu'elle prendrait ensuite dans le concert des géosciences, notamment en Paléocéanographie et Paléoclimatologie, et dans le développement de la recherche pétrolière ou encore des travaux d'aménagement du territoire, tel le creusement du Tunnel sous la Manche. Les planches de foraminifères dessinés par d'Orbigny concrétisaient plusieurs années d'observation ; elles étalent destinées à l'illustration de son travail fondateur sur les foraminifères, mais restèrent inédites bien que devenues une référence incontournable pour de nombreux chercheurs. D'une grande qualité, elles témoignent des dons d'observation de leur auteur et de ses talents artistiques. Il importait donc de les publier. Elles sont reproduites dans ce volume et analysées par Marie-Thérèse Vénec-Peyré qui retrace leur histoire, replace les espèces dans le contexte scientifique actuel et fait le point sur le matériel type conservé dans les collections de Micropaléontologie du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.

  • Remarquable jardinier du xviiie siècle, éminent spécialiste des fraisiers, correspondant des plus grands naturalistes de son temps, Antoine Nicolas Duchesne était en outre un talentueux dessinateur. Esprit curieux et soucieux d'observer et d'expliquer la diversité biologique, évolutionniste et généticien avant l'heure, il ne se contentait pas de cultiver ses plantes, il étudiait leur biologie, les croisait, expérimentant en permanence à cette frontière, floue à l'époque, entre variété et espèce. Ses observations, qui ont attiré l'attention de Darwin, n'étaient pas simplement consignées mais faisaient, de sa main, l'objet d'illustrations précises et détaillées. Les planches ainsi réalisées sur les fraisiers constituent une référence essentielle, incontournable. Il importait donc de publier les oeuvres de ce précurseur de méthodes et d'idées qui allaient se développer au siècle suivant et révolutionner non seulement la botanique mais aussi les conceptions de l'organisation et du fonctionnement du monde vivant. Le présent volume rend enfin accessibles les planches inédites, conservées à la bibliothèque centrale du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, de ce précurseur, de ce « jardinier cultivateur » comme il aimait se qualifier, de cet inspirateur des « naturalistes profonds » avec lesquels il n'hésitait pas à entretenir parfois des controverses scientifiques. Les dessins de Duchesne figurent avec ses commentaires d'époque et ceux, actuels, de l'auteur du volume, le Professeur Günter Staudt.

  • This book provides answers to today's questions and thoughts on solutions for tomorrow contributed by some fifty scientists and well-known experts.
    Proposing solutions for dealing with climate change has become a major issue for the future of our societies. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, due in large part to human activity, and lowering the vulnerability of our societies and ecosystems through anticipation, adaptation and resilience, is vital. The development of solutions to deal with climate change is an essential counterpart to the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21), and this book provides answers to today's questions as well as thoughts on solutions for tomorrow contributed by some fifty scientists and well-known experts.
    Consisting of around forty essays, it offers a global vision of the problems linked to climate change, addressing developments in the behaviour of societies, the economic and institutional contexts, as well as technical and environmental issues. It provides an original perspective, drawing on the broad diversity of critical approaches that are necessary for the construction of innovative and smart solutions for the future of our Society.

  • This book gives a coherent development of the current understanding of the fluid dynamics of the middle latitude atmosphere. It is primarily aimed at post-graduate and advanced undergraduate level students and does not assume any previous knowledge of fluid mechanics, meteorology or atmospheric science. The book will be an invaluable resource for any quantitative atmospheric scientist who wishes to increase their understanding of the subject. The importance of the rotation of the Earth and the stable stratification of its atmosphere, with their implications for the balance of larger-scale flows, is highlighted throughout.
    Clearly structured throughout, the first of three themes deals with the development of the basic equations for an atmosphere on a rotating, spherical planet and discusses scale analyses of these equations. The second theme explores the importance of rotation and introduces vorticity and potential vorticity, as well as turbulence. In the third theme, the concepts developed in the first two themes are used to give an understanding of balanced motion in real atmospheric phenomena. It starts with quasi-geostrophic theory and moves on to linear and nonlinear theories for mid-latitude weather systems and their fronts. The potential vorticity perspective on weather systems is highlighted with a discussion of the Rossby wave propagation and potential vorticity mixing covered in the final chapter.

  • The diverse forms that stars assume in the course of their lives can all be derived from the initial conditions : the mass and the original chemical composition. In this textbook Stars and Stellar Evolution the basic concepts of stellar structure and the main roads of stellar evolution are described. First, the observable parameters are presented, which are based on the radiation emerging from a stellar atmosphere. Then the basic physics is described, such as the physics of gases, radiation transport, and nuclear processes, followed by essential aspects of modelling the structure of stars. After a chapter on star formation, the various steps in the evolution of stars are presented.

    This leads us to brown dwarfs, to the way a star changes into the red-giant state and numerous other stages of evolution and ultimately to the stellar ashes such as white dwarfs, supernovae and neutron stars. Stellar winds, stellar rotation and convection all influence the way a star evolves. The evolution of binary stars is included by using several canonical examples in which interactive processes lead to X-ray binaries and supernovae of type Ia. Finally, the consequences of the study of stellar evolution are tied to observed mass and luminosity functions and to the overall evolution of matter in the universe.

    The authors aim at reaching an understanding of stars and their evolution by both graduate students and astronomers who are not themselves investigating stars. To that end, numerous graphs and sketches, among which the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the dominant one, help trace the ways of stellar evolution. Ample references to specialised review articles as well as to relevant research papers are included.