• Paul Cézanne (Aix-en-Provence, 1839 - 1906) Depuis sa mort il y a deux siècles, Cézanne est devenu le peintre le plus célèbre du XIXe siècle. Il naquit à Aix-en-Provence en 1839, et la plus belle période de sa vie fut sa prime jeunesse en Provence, qu'il passa en compagnie de Zola, également d'origine italienne. Suivant l'exemple de ce dernier, Cézanne partit pour Paris à l'âge de 21 ans. Il fut déserteur pendant la guerre franco-prussienne, partageant son temps entre la peinture en plein air et son atelier. Il déclara à Vollard, un marchand d'art : «Je ne suis qu'un peintre. L'humour parisien me donne du mal. Peindre des nus sur les rives de l'Arc [une rivière près d'Aix] c'est tout ce que je demande ». Encouragé par Renoir, l'un des premiers à l'apprécier, il exposa avec les impressionnistes en 1874 et en 1877. Il fut reçu avec une dérision qui le blessa. L'ambition de Cézanne, selon ses propres paroles, était «de faire de l'impressionnisme quelque chose d'aussi solide et de durable que les peintures des musées ». Son but était d'atteindre au monumental par un langage moderne de tons incandescents et vibrants. Cézanne voulait reproduire la couleur naturelle d'un objet et l'harmoniser avec les variations de lumière et d'ombre qui tendent habituellement à le détruire ; il désirait élaborer une échelle de tons capables d'exprimer la masse et le caractère de la forme. Cézanne aimait peindre des fruits, parce que c'étaient des modèles dociles et qu'il travaillait lentement. Il ne cherchait pas à reproduire la pomme. Il gardait la couleur dominante et le caractère du fruit, mais amplifiait l'attrait émotionnel de sa forme par un agencement de tons riches et harmonieux. C'était un maître de la nature morte. Ses compositions de fruits et légumes sont véritablement impressionnantes : elles ont le poids, la noblesse, le style des formes immortelles. Aucun autre peintre n'a jamais accordé à une pomme de conviction aussi ardente, de sympathie aussi authentique, ni d'intérêt aussi prolongé. Aucun autre peintre de ce talent n'a jamais réservé dans ses natures mortes ses impulsions les plus fortes à la création de choses nouvelles et vivantes. Cézanne rendit à la peinture la prééminence du savoir - de la connaissance des choses - une qualité essentielle à tout effort créatif. A la mort de son père, en 1886, il devint riche, mais ne changea rien à son train de vie frugal. Peu après, Cézanne se retira définitivement dans sa propriété en Provence. Il fut sans doute le peintre le plus solitaire de son temps. Parfois, il était saisi d'une curieuse mélancolie, d'un noir désespoir. Avec le temps, il devint plus sauvage et exigeant, détruisant des toiles, les jetant dans les arbres par la fenêtre de son atelier, les abandonnant dans les champs, les donnant à son fils pour qu'il en fasse des puzzles, ou aux gens d'Aix. Au début du XXe siècle, quand Vollard débarqua en Provence avec l'intention de spéculer en achetant tous les Cézanne qu'il pouvait emporter, les paysans des environs, apprenant qu'un guignol de Paris cherchait à gagner de l'argent avec des vieilles toiles, se mirent à produire dans leurs granges tout un tas de natures mortes et de paysages. Le vieux Maître d'Aix fut submergé par la joie. Mais la reconnaissance vint trop tard. En 1906, il succomba à une fièvre contractée alors qu'il peignait sous une pluie diluvienne.

  • Katsushika Hokusai is without a doubt the most famous Japanese artist known in the Western world since the middle of the nineteenth century.
    Reflecting the artistic expression of an isolated civilisation, the works of Hokusai, one of the first Japanese artists to emerge in Europe, greatly influenced Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters, such as Vincent van Gogh.
    Considered a Ukiyo-e master even during his lifetime, Hokusai fascinates us with the variety and the significance of his work which spanned almost ninety years and is presented here in all its breadth and diversity.

  • Dalí, Salvador (Figueras, 1904 - Torre-Galatea, 1989) Peintre, artiste, créateur d´objets, écrivain et cinéaste, il est connu du public comme un des représentants majeur du surréalisme. Buñuel, Lorca, Picasso, Breton... : ces rencontres constituent autant d´étapes dans la carrière de Dalí. Réalisé avec Buñuel, le film Un chien andalou marque son entrée officielle dans le groupe des surréalistes parisiens où il rencontre Gala, la femme d´Éluard, qui deviendra sa compagne et son inspiratrice. Entre cet artiste éclectique et provocateur et les surréalistes parisiens, les relations se tendront progressivement à partir de 1934 jusqu´à la rupture avec Breton, cinq ans plus tard. Pourtant, l´art de Dalí relève bien de l´esthétique surréaliste dont il a conservé le goût pour le dépaysement, l´humour et l´imagination.

  • Goya is perhaps the most approachable of painters. His art, like his life, is an open book. He concealed nothing from his contemporaries, and offered his art to them with the same frankness. The entrance to his world is not barricaded with technical difficulties. He proved that if a man has the capacity to live and multiply his experiences, to fight and work, he can produce great art without classical decorum and traditional respectability. He was born in 1746, in Fuendetodos, a small mountain village of a hundred inhabitants. As a child he worked in the fields with his two brothers and his sister until his talent for drawing put an end to his misery. At fourteen, supported by a wealthy patron, he went to Saragossa to study with a court painter and later, when he was nineteen, on to Madrid. Up to his thirty-seventh year, if we leave out of account the tapestry cartoons of unheralded decorative quality and five small pictures, Goya painted nothing of any significance, but once in control of his refractory powers, he produced masterpieces with the speed of Rubens. His court appointment was followed by a decade of incessant activity - years of painting and scandal, with intervals of bad health. Goya´s etchings demonstrate a draughtsmanship of the first rank. In paint, like Velázquez, he is more or less dependent on the model, but not in the detached fashion of the expert in still-life. If a woman was ugly, he made her a despicable horror; if she was alluring, he dramatised her charm. He preferred to finish his portraits at one sitting and was a tyrant with his models. Like Velázquez, he concentrated on faces, but he drew his heads cunningly, and constructed them out of tones of transparent greys. Monstrous forms inhabit his black-and-white world: these are his most profoundly deliberated productions. His fantastic figures, as he called them, fill us with a sense of ignoble joy, aggravate our devilish instincts and delight us with the uncharitable ecstasies of destruction. His genius attained its highest point in his etchings on the horrors of war. When placed beside the work of Goya, other pictures of war pale into sentimental studies of cruelty. He avoided the scattered action of the battlefield, and confined himself to isolated scenes of butchery. Nowhere else did he display such mastery of form and movement, such dramatic gestures and appalling effects of light and darkness. In all directions Goya renewed and innovated.

  • A painter and printmaker of the Rococo movement, Jean- Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806) is recognised as one of France's most prolific artists. His genius however almost went forgotten after the Revolution due to the expanding influence of neo-classicism and the loss of his bourgeoisie clientele. He studied under the great Boucher and painted over 550 works in various genres including landscapes and portraits illustrating the erotic, the domestic and an abundance of religious scenery. His smooth brushstrokes never faltered in depicting the charm and wit of 18th century France. Fragonard's talent lies in bringing his creations to life in a refined and decadent manner with Goncourt describing him as "the poet of the Ars Amatoria of the age".

  • A painter and printmaker of the Rococo movement, Jean- Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806) is recognised as one of France's most prolific artists. His genius however almost went forgotten after the Revolution due to the expanding influence of neo-classicism and the loss of his bourgeoisie clientele. He studied under the great Boucher and painted over 550 works in various genres including landscapes and portraits illustrating the erotic, the domestic and an abundance of religious scenery. His smooth brushstrokes never faltered in depicting the charm and wit of 18th century France. Fragonard's talent lies in bringing his creations to life in a refined and decadent manner with Goncourt describing him as "the poet of the Ars Amatoria of the age".

  • Katsushika Hokusai is without a doubt the most famous Japanese artist known in the Western world since the middle of the nineteenth century.
    Reflecting the artistic expression of an isolated civilisation, the works of Hokusai, one of the first Japanese artists to emerge in Europe, greatly influenced Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters, such as Vincent van Gogh.
    Considered a Ukiyo-e master even during his lifetime, Hokusai fascinates us with the variety and the significance of his work which spanned almost ninety years and is presented here in all its breadth and diversity.

  • Hokuszai (17601849) a japán festészet kimagasló alakja, a tájképes fametszetek legnagyobb mestere. 35 ezer festmény, rajz és metszet maradt fenn tle. Tanítványaival készített rajzainak gyjteménye Manga c. tbbktetes munkája.

  • Katsushika Hokusai est sans doute l´artiste japonais le plus connu en Occident, et ce, depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle. Reflet de l´expression artistique d´une civilisation isolée, les oeuvres de Hokusai, qui furent parmi les premières en provenance du Japon à émerger en Europe, influencèrent particulièrement les peintres impressionnistes et post-impressionnistes, tels que Vincent van Gogh. Considéré de son vivant comme un maître de l´estampe Ukiyo-e, Hokusai fascine par la variété et l´étendue de son OEuvre. Son travail, de près de quatre-vingt-dix ans, est présenté ici dans toute son importance et sa diversité.

  • Der insgesamt der Kunstrichtung der Klassischen Moderne zuzurechnende Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) wurde im niederländischen Amersfort geboren. Nach seinem Studium in Amsterdam begann ers eine Künstlerkarriere im impressionistischen Stil als Figuren- und Landschaftsmaler. Seine Arbeiten aus jenen Jahren zeigen den Einfluss Vincent van Goghs (1853-1890) und des Fauvismus, einer französischen Stilrichtung aus dem Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts. Auf seiner Reise des Jahres 1911 nach Paris entdeckte er Pablo Picassos (1881-1973) Arbeiten, damit für sich den Kubismus und wurde aufgrund dessen nach seiner Rückkehr zum Pionier der abstrakten Malereiin den Niederlanden.
    Seine Gemälde weisen ab den 1920er Jahren - er lebte zu dieser Zeit und für etwa zwanzig Jahre wieder in Paris - einen auf das Senkrechte und Waagerechte zurückgehenden Aufbau und damit strenge geometrische Formen auf, die, zusammen mit den Gegensätzen blauer, gelber, roter und nichtfarbiger Flächen, zu seinem Markenzeichen wurden. In New York, wo er seine letzten Jahre verbrachte, fand seine Kunst großen Anklang. Mondrian war nicht nur Maler, sondern auch Kunsttheoretiker und Mitbegründer der Kunstrichtung De Stijl.

  • Goya ist einer der zugänglichsten Maler. Seine Kunst ist wie sein Leben ein offenes Buch und es ist nicht die Kunst einer idealen, sondern einer garstigen und unheimlichen Welt. Er kam als Sohn eines Vergolders in einem kleinen Bergdorf mit hundert Einwohnern zur Welt. Als Kind arbeitete er zusammen mit seinen Geschwistern auf dem Feld, bis sein Zeichentalent entdeckt wurde. Dank der Vermittlung eines Gönners kam er als 14-Jähriger zu einem Hofmaler in Saragossa in die Lehre und zog als 19-Jähriger nach Madrid. Abgesehen von wunderbar dekorativen Kartons für die Gobelinmanufaktur und fünf kleinen Bildern malte Goya bis zu seinem 37. Jahr nichts Bedeutendes, doch nach seiner Bestellung zum Hofmaler entfaltet er eine Produktivität, die der von Rubens nicht nachsteht. Es folgt ein zeitweise von Krankheit getrübtes Jahrzehnt unglaublichen Schaffens und der Skandale. In seinen Radierungen zeigt er sich als herausragender Zeichenkünstler. In seiner Malerei ist er stark von Velásquez beeinflusst und wie dieser von seinem Modell abhängig, wobei er sich einer rücksichtslosen Wirklichkeitstreue befleißigt, die gelegentlich auch in die Karikatur umschlägt. Hässlichkeit wird genau so dramatisiert wie Liebreiz und Schönheit. Seine Grafikzyklen, die Kaprizen und die Kapriolen sind aufs Sorgfältigste durchdacht und psychologische Meisterwerke. Seine "fantastischen Figuren" erfüllen uns mit einer hämischen Freude, regen unsere diabolischen Instinkte an und lassen uns erschauern. Am deutlichsten offenbar wird sein Genie in seinen Radierungen über die Schrecken des Krieges. Neben diesen Darstellungen wirkt jedes andere Kriegsbild blass und sentimental. Er konzentriert sich auf vereinzelte Szenen der Grausamkeit. Nirgendwo sonst zeigt er eine solche Beherrschung von Form und Bewegung, so dramatische Gesten und eine so gekonnte Wirkung von Licht und Dunkel wie in diesem Aufbegehren gegen die Gewalt. Doch malte er auch volksnahe Vergnügungen sowie Portraits. Vergessen wir nicht, dass dieser außerordentlich vielseitige Künstler auch das schönste spanische Aktbild, die Nackte Maja, schuf.

  • Marc Chagall was born into a strict Jewish family for whom the ban on representations of the human figure had the weight of dogma. A failure in the entrance examination for the Stieglitz School did not stop Chagall from later joining that famous school founded by the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and directed by Nicholas Roerich. Chagall moved to Paris in 1910. The city was his "second Vitebsk". At first, isolated in the little room on the Impasse du Maine at La Ruche, Chagall soon found numerous compatriots also attracted by the prestige of Paris: Lipchitz, Zadkine, Archipenko and Soutine, all of whom were to maintain the "smell" of his native land. From his very arrival Chagall wanted to "discover everything". And to his dazzled eyes painting did indeed reveal itself. Even the most attentive and partial observer is at times unable to distinguish the "Parisian", Chagall from the "Vitebskian". The artist was not full of contradictions, nor was he a split personality, but he always remained different; he looked around and within himself and at the surrounding world, and he used his present thoughts and recollections. He had an utterly poetical mode of thought that enabled him to pursue such a complex course. Chagall was endowed with a sort of stylistic immunity: he enriched himself without destroying anything of his own inner structure. Admiring the works of others he studied them ingenuously, ridding himself of his youthful awkwardness, yet never losing his authenticity for a moment.
    At times Chagall seemed to look at the world through magic crystal - overloaded with artistic experimentation - of the Ecole de Paris. In such cases he would embark on a subtle and serious play with the various discoveries of the turn of the century and turned his prophetic gaze like that of a biblical youth, to look at himself ironically and thoughtfully in the mirror. Naturally, it totally and uneclectically reflected the painterly discoveries of Cézanne, the delicate inspiration of Modigliani, and the complex surface rhythms recalling the experiments of the early Cubists (See-Portrait at the Easel, 1914). Despite the analyses which nowadays illuminate the painter´s Judaeo-Russian sources, inherited or borrowed but always sublime, and his formal relationships, there is always some share of mystery in Chagall´s art. The mystery perhaps lies in the very nature of his art, in which he uses his experiences and memories. Painting truly is life, and perhaps life is painting.

  • Wenn das Land der aufgehenden Sonne in einem der häufigen Erdbeben für immer im Meer versinken sollte, würde es durch den magischen Pinsel Hiroshiges für uns dennoch fortleben.
    Wenn wir seine Landschaften betrachten, trägt uns unsere Fantasie in ein Land der Regenschauer und der Sonnenuntergänge, in ein Märchenreich, in dem in tausend Prismen zerborstene Regenbogen auf die Erde fallen und in dem Wasser sanft in Richtung Horizont fließt.
    Hiroshige gilt als der letzte große Meister der Kunst des Ukiyo-e. Er setzte die Üppigkeit der Farben ein, um dem Betrachter in seinen sorgfältigen Abbildungen berühmter Orte eine glänzende Vision Japans zu präsentieren.

  • Francisco Goya werd tweeëntachtig jaar (1746-1828) en gedurende die tijd produceerde hij eengeweldige hoeveelheid werk - ongeveer 500 olieverfschilderijen en wandschilderingen, bijna 300 etsen en steendrukplaten, en een paar honderd tekeningen. Hij was zowel een bekwaam schilder als tekenaar en hij experimenteerde met tal van technieken; zelfs aan het einde van zijn leven was hij een pionier in de nieuwe drukmethode van de lithografie. Goya was in wezen een figuratieve schilder en hij behandelde heel veel verschillende onderwerpen. Hij ontwikkelde zich tot de toonaangevende portretschilder van Spanje, verfraaide kerken in Saragossa en Madrid met altaarstukken en wandschilderingen en ontwierp wandtapijten die het leven in Madrid verbeeldden. Zijn talrijke privé-schetsboeken bevatten zijn persoonlijke waarnemingen.

  • Goya is perhaps the most approachable of painters. His art, like his life, is an open book. He concealed nothing from his contemporaries, and offered his art to them with the same frankness. The entrance to his world is not barricaded with technical difficulties. He proved that if a man has the capacity to live and multiply his experiences, to fight and work, he can produce great art without classical decorum and traditional respectability. He was born in 1746, in Fuendetodos, a small mountain village of a hundred inhabitants. As a child he worked in the fields with his two brothers and his sister until his talent for drawing put an end to his misery. At fourteen, supported by a wealthy patron, he went to Saragossa to study with a court painter and later, when he was nineteen, on to Madrid. Up to his thirty-seventh year, if we leave out of account the tapestry cartoons of unheralded decorative quality and five small pictures, Goya painted nothing of any significance, but once in control of his refractory powers, he produced masterpieces with the speed of Rubens. His court appointment was followed by a decade of incessant activity - years of painting and scandal, with intervals of bad health. Goya's etchings demonstrate a draughtsmanship of the first rank. In paint, like Velázquez, he is more or less dependent on the model, but not in the detached fashion of the expert in still-life. If a woman was ugly, he made her a despicable horror; if she was alluring, he dramatised her charm. He preferred to finish his portraits at one sitting and was a tyrant with his models. Like Velázquez, he concentrated on faces, but he drew his heads cunningly, and constructed them out of tones of transparent greys. Monstrous forms inhabit his black-and-white world: these are his most profoundly deliberated productions. His fantastic figures, as he called them, fill us with a sense of ignoble joy, aggravate our devilish instincts and delight us with the uncharitable ecstasies of destruction. His genius attained its highest point in his etchings on the horrors of war. When placed beside the work of Goya, other pictures of war pale into sentimental studies of cruelty. He avoided the scattered action of the battlefield, and confined himself to isolated scenes of butchery. Nowhere else did he display such mastery of form and movement, such dramatic gestures and appalling effects of light and darkness. In all directions Goya renewed and innovated.

  • Ornans, Courbet's birthplace, is near the beautiful valley of the Doubs River, and it was here as a boy, and later as a man, that he absorbed the love of landscape.
    He was by nature a revolutionary, a man born to oppose existing order and to assert his independence; he had that quality of bluster and brutality which makes the revolutionary count in art as well as in politics. In both directions his spirit of revolt manifested itself. He went to Paris to study art, yet he did not attach himself to the studio of any of the prominent masters. Already in his country home he had had a little instruction in painting, and preferred to study the masterpieces of the Louvre. At first his pictures were not sufficiently distinctive to arouse any opposition, and were admitted to the Salon. Then followed the Funeral at Ornans, which the critics violently assailed: "A masquerade funeral, six metres long, in which there is more to laugh at than to weep over." Indeed, the real offence of Courbet's pictures was that they represented live flesh and blood. They depicted men and women as they really are and realistically doing the business in which they are engaged. His figures were not men and women deprived of personality and idealised into a type, posed in positions that will decorate the canvas. He advocated painting things as they are, and proclaimed that la vérité vraie must be the aim of the artist. So at the Universal Exposition of 1855 he withdrew his pictures from the exhibition grounds and set them in a wooden booth, just outside the entrance. Over the booth he posted a sign with large lettering. It read, simply: "Courbet - Realist." Like every revolutionary, he was an extremist. He ignored the fact that to every artist the truth of nature appears under a different guise according to his way of seeing and experiencing. Instead, he adhered to the notion that art is only a copying of nature and not a matter also of selection and arrangement. In his contempt for prettiness Courbet often chose subjects which may fairly be called ugly. But that he also had a sense of beauty may be seen in his landscapes. That sense, mingled with his capacity for deep emotion, appears in his marines - these last being his most impressive work. Moreover, in all his works, whether attractive or not to the observer, he proved himself a powerful painter, painting in a broad, free manner, with a fine feeling for colour, and with a firmness of pigment that made all his representations very real and stirring.

  • Mary was born in Pittsburgh. Her father was a banker of liberal educational ideas and the entire family appears to have been sympathetic to French culture. Mary was no more than five or six years old when she first saw Paris, and she was still in her teens when she decided to become a painter. She went to Italy, on to Antwerp, then to Rome, andfinally returned to Paris where in 1874, she permanently settled.
    In 1872, Cassatt sent her first work to the Salon, others followed in the succeeding years until 1875, when a portrait of her sister was rejected. She divined that the jury had not been satisfied with the background, so she re-painted it several times until, in the next Salon, the same portrait was accepted. At this moment Degas asked her to exhibit with him and his friends, the Impressionist Group, then rising into view, and she accepted with joy. She admired Manet, Courbet and Degas, and hated conventional art.
    Cassatt's biographer stressed the intellectuality and sentiment apparent in her work, as well as the emotion and distinction with which she has painted her favourite models: babies and their mothers. He then speaks of her predominant interest in draughtsmanship and her gift for linear pattern, a gift greatly strengthened by her study of Japanese art and her emulation of its style in the colour prints she made. While her style may partake of the style of others, her draughtsmanship, her composition, her light, and her colour are, indeed, her own. There are qualities of tenderness in her work which could have been put there, perhaps, only by a woman. The qualities which make her work of lasting value are those put there by an outstanding painter.

  • Desde su muerte, hace 100 años, Cézanne se ha convertido en el pintor más famoso del siglo XIX. Nació en Aix-en-Provence en 1839 y el periodo más feliz de su vida fue su primera juventud en Provenza, en compañía de Emile Zolá. Siguiendo el ejemplo de Zolá, al cumplir los veintiún años, Cézanne se marchó a París. Durante la guerra franco-prusiana desertó de la milicia, y dividió su tiempo entre pintar al aire libre y estudiar. Al comerciante de arte Vollard le dijo: "Sólo soy un pintor. El ingenio parisino me fastidia. Lo único que quiero es pintar desnudos en las orillas del Arc [un río cercano a Aix]". Animado por Renoir, uno de los primeros en apreciarlo, exhibió con los impresionistas en 1874 y en 1877. Su obra fue recibida con desdén, lo que lo hirió profundamente. La ambición de Cézanne en sus propias palabras, era "hacer del impresionismo algo tan sólido y durable como las pinturas de los museos". Su objetivo era lograr algo monumental en un lenguaje moderno de tonos brillantes y vibrantes. Cézanne quería retener el color natural de un objeto y armonizarlo con las diversas influencias de luz y sombra que intentaban destruirlo; buscaba una escala de tonos que expresara la masa y el carácter de la forma. A Cézanne le gustaba pintar frutas porque se trataba de modelos pacientes y él trabajaba lentamente. No pretendía sólo copiar una manzana. Mantenía el color dominante y el carácter de la fruta, pero subrayaba el atractivo emocional de la forma con un conjunto de tonos ricos y concordantes. En sus pinturas de naturalezas muertas era un maestro. Sus composiciones de vegetales y frutas son verdaderamente dramáticas; tienen peso, nobleza, el estilo de las formas inmortales. Ningún otro pintor logró darle a una manzana roja una convicción tan cálida, una simpatía tan genuinamente espiritual o una observación tan prolongada. Ningún otro pintor de habilidad comparable reservó sus más fuertes impulsos para las naturalezas muertas. Cézanne devolvió a la pintura la preeminencia del conocimiento, la calidad más esencial de todo esfuerzo creativo. La muerte de su padre, en 1886, lo convirtió en un hombre rico, pero no por eso cambió su estilo de vida austero. Poco después, Cézanne se retiró de forma permanente a su propiedad en Provenza. Probablemente se trató del más solitario de los pintores de su época. Por momentos le atacaba una peculiar melancolía, una oscura desesperanza. Se volvió irascible y exigente, destruía los lienzos y los arrojaba fuera de su estudio, hacia los árboles, los abandonaba en los campos, se los daba a su hijo para que los cortara e hiciera con ellos rompecabezas o se los regalaba a la gente de Aix. A principios de siglo, cuando Vollard llegó a Provenza con intenciones de adquirir todo lo que pudiera del material de Cézanne, los campesinos, que se enteraron de que un loco de París estaba pagando por aquellos viejos lienzos, sacaron de los graneros una considerable cantidad de naturalezas muertas y paisajes. El viejo maestro de Aix se sintió abrumado por la alegría, pero el reconocimiento le llegó demasiado tarde. Murió en 1906 de una fiebre que contrajo mientras pintaba en la lluvia.

  • Painter, designer, creator of bizarre objects, author and film maker, Dalí became the most famous of the Surrealists. Buñuel, Lorca, Picasso and Breton all had a great influence on his career. Dalí's film, An Andalusian Dog, produced with Buñuel, marked his official entry into the tightly-knit group of Parisian Surrealists, where he met Gala, the woman who became his lifelong companion and his source of inspiration. But his relationship soon deteriorated until his final rift with André Breton in 1939. Nevertheless Dalí's art remained surrealist in its philosophy and expression and a prime example of his freshness, humour and exploration of the subconscious mind. Throughout his life, Dalí was a genius at self-promotion, creating and maintaining his reputation as a mythical figure.

  • Marc Chagall (Vitebsk, 1887 - Saint-Paul-de-Vence, 1985) Chagall est né dans une famille juive de stricte obédience pour laquelle l´interdit de représentation de la figure humaine avait valeur de dogme. Après un échec à l´examen d´entrée à l´école des Arts et Métiers du baron Stieglitz, Chagall intègre plus tard celle fondée par la Société impériale d´encouragement des Beaux-Arts dirigée par Nicolas Roerich.
    En 1910, il s´installe à Paris qui sera son «second Vitebsk ». Chagall retrouve à la Ruche de nombreux compatriotes attirés, eux aussi, par le prestige de Paris. Lipchitz, Zadkine, Archipenko, Soutine qui maintiendront, autour du jeune peintre, le parfum de sa terre natale. Les auteurs des premières études sur Chagall relevaient déjà que Paris avait influencé sa manière picturale, avait apporté une nervosité frêle et une netteté aux lignes qui répondent avec assurance et justesse à la couleur et pour beaucoup, la commandent. L´observateur le plus attentif, le plus passionné, se révèle parfois incapable de distinguer le Chagall «de Paris » du Chagall «de Vitebsk ».
    L´artiste n´est pas contradictoire ni «dédoublé », mais il demeurait constamment ouverts, regardant en lui et autour de lui, considérant le monde environnant, les idées de son époque, les souvenirs du passé. Chagall est doué d´une sorte «d´immunité stylistique », il s´enrichit sans rien détruire de sa propre structure. Il s´enthousiasme, apprend en toute ingénuité, se défait de la maladresse juvénile, mais sans perdre son «authenticité ». Parfois, c´est comme s´il regardait le monde à travers le prisme magique de l´école de Paris.
    Alors il engage un jeu tout en finesse et en sérieux avec les découvertes du tournant du siècle, alors l´adolescent se considère, ironique et songeur, dans un miroir où s´unissent tout naturellement les acquis picturaux de Cézanne, la spiritualisation fragile de Modigliani, les rythmes complexes des plans qui rappellent les expériences des premiers cubistes (Autoportrait devant le chevalet, 1914).
    Cependant, au-delà des analyses qui, aujourd´hui, éclairent les sources judéo-russes du peintre, les filiations formelles héritées ou empruntées, mais toujours sublimées, une part de mystère demeure dans l´art de Chagall. Ce mystère tient peut-être à la nature même de cet art qui puise dans le souvenir.

  • Maître incontesté de l'estampe japonaise, Hokusai n'a cessé d'inspirer les artistes occidentaux, en particulier les peintres impressionnistes. Il a traité tous les sujets, profanes et sacrés, et il est aussi célèbre pour ses vues du mont Fuji que pour ses planches érotiques. Complément utile de vos visites, réelles ou virtuelles, ce livre abondamment illustré propose une plaisante introduction à la vie, à l'oeuvre, aux techniques et aux thématiques de l'artiste, emblématique de l'Ukiyo-e.

  • Since his death 200 years ago, Cézanne has become the most famous painter of the nineteenth century. He was born in Aix-en-Provence in 1839 and the happiest period of his life was his early youth in Provence, in company with Emile Zolá, another Italian. Following Zolá´s example, Cézanne went to Paris in his twenty-first year.
    During the Franco-Prussian war he deserted the military, dividing his time between open-air painting and the studio. He said to Vollard, an art dealer, "I´m only a painter. Parisian wit gives me a pain. Painting nudes on the banks of the Arc [a river near Aix] is all I could ask for." Encouraged by Renoir, one of the first to appreciate him, he exhibited with the impressionists in 1874 and in 1877. He was received with derision, which deeply hurt him.
    Cézanne´s ambition, in his own words, was "to make out of Impressionism something as solid and durable as the paintings of the museums." His aim was to achieve the monumental in a modern language of glowing, vibrating tones. Cézanne wanted to retain the natural colour of an object and to harmonise it with the various influences of light and shade trying to destroy it; to work out a scale of tones expressing the mass and character of the form.
    Cézanne loved to paint fruit because it afforded him obedient models and he was a slow worker. He did not intend to simply copy an apple. He kept the dominant colour and the character of the fruit, but heightened the emotional appeal of the form by a scheme of rich and concordant tones. In his paintings of still-life he is a master. His fruit and vegetable compositions are truly dramatic; they have the weight, the nobility, the style of immortal forms. No other painter ever brought to a red apple a conviction so heated, sympathy so genuinely spiritual, or an observation so protracted. No other painter of equal ability ever reserved for still-life his strongest impulses. Cézanne restored to painting the pre-eminence of knowledge, the most essential quality to all creative effort.
    The death of his father in 1886 made him a rich man, but he made no change in his abstemious mode of living. Soon afterwards, Cézanne retired permanently to his estate in Provence. He was probably the loneliest of painters of his day. At times a curious melancholy attacked him, a black hopelessness. He grew more savage and exacting, destroying canvases, throwing them out of his studio into the trees, abandoning them in the fields, and giving them to his son to cut into puzzles, or to the people of Aix.
    At the beginning of the century, when Vollard arrived in Provence with intentions of buying on speculation all the Cézannes he could get hold of, the peasantry, hearing that a fool from Paris was actually handing out money for old linen, produced from barns a considerable number of still-lifes and landscapes. The old master of Aix was overcome with joy, but recognition came too late. In 1906 he died from a fever contracted while painting in a downpour of rain.

  • Dalí, Salvador (Figueras, 1904 - Torre-Galatea, 1989)
    Peintre, artiste, créateur d'objets, écrivain et cinéaste, il est connu du public comme un des représentants majeur du surréalisme. Buñuel, Lorca, Picasso, Breton... : ces rencontres constituent autant d'étapes dans la carrière de Dalí. Réalisé avec Buñuel, le film Un chien andalou marque son entrée officielle dans le groupe des surréalistes parisiens où il rencontre Gala, la femme d'Éluard, qui deviendra sa compagne et son inspiratrice. Entre cet artiste éclectique et provocateur et les surréalistes parisiens, les relations se tendront progressivement à partir de 1934 jusqu'à la rupture avec Breton, cinq ans plus tard. Pourtant, l'art de Dalí relève bien de l'esthétique surréaliste dont il a conservé le goût pour le dépaysement, l'humour et l'imagination.

  • Maler, Designer, Hersteller von seltsamen Gegenständen, Autor und Filmemacher: Dali wurde der Berühmteste der Surrealisten. Bunuel, Lorca, Picasso und Breton hatten einen großen Einfluss auf seine Karriere. Dalis und Bunuels Film "Ein andalusischer Hund" markierte seinen offiziellen Einstieg in die festgefügte Gruppe der Pariser Surrealisten, wo er Gala kennen lernte, seine lebenslange Gefährtin und die Quelle seiner Inspiration. Aber seine Beziehung verfiel bald bis zu ihrem endgültigen Ende mit André Breton im Jahr 1939. Trotz allem blieb Dalis Kunst in ihrer Philosophie und Ausdrucksweise surrealistisch, und ein Schulbeispiel für Humor, Reinheit und Erforschung des Unbewussten. Während seines ganzen Lebens war Dali ein Genie der Selbstvermarktung, indem er seinem Ruf eine mystische Note zufügte und immer beibehielt.

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