Ayant longtemps refusé toute immixtion dans ses affaires intérieures, sur les plans politique et socio-économique, l'Algérie accepte, désormais, les conditionnalités des bailleurs de fonds. L'ambition de cet ouvrage, rédigé à un moment où les intellectuels payent, au quotidien, le tribut du sang ou, dans certains cas, celui de l'exil, est de rendre compte de ces mutations et de proposer un regard novateur sur les nombreux questionnements que suscite la crise algérienne. Sur la base d'une documentation fournie, ce livre montre que les Algériens ne pourront pas continuer à vivre de désillusions, de désenchantement et de frustrations. C'est pourquoi l'un des plus grands défis de ce pays est donc de savoir comment faire pour renverser les tendances qu'on y observe, en particulier en enchantant les générations actuelles - pour la plupart nées après l'indépendance - et les générations futures. Écrit de manière sereine par des universitaires de métier, cet ouvrage est une source indispensable à la compréhension de l'Algérie contemporaine.
La poésie d'Henri Michel Yéré est de l'audace et de la toison des textes accomplis, cette poésie qui possède la verve et le front des mythes fondateurs, cette poésie qui « déroule sa langue en tapis vers l'éternité ». Il y a ici cette calme assurance de la mémoire, ce dire contenu du temps qui se sait à l'abri de la précarité et de l'angoisse. Se noue alors le jeu de pôles contraires qui, justement, se jaugent, se toisent et s'étreignent dans le silence alors dompté de leur antinomie : le caillou, dit le poète « qui défie le soleil » et le « long fleuve en crue » portant la marche des combattants de la liberté (...). Dans les Afriques qui voient naître la démocratie, les Afriques et les mondes de Mil Neuf Cent Quatre-Vingt- Dix, les suppliciés ne manquent pas. Et si les causes diffèrent, la mort est partout la même. Abrupte. Abjecte. Oublieuse. Contre elle, Henri Michel Yéré - poète de la conscience mémorielle - élève la stèle d'un chant qui refuse le silence de la pierre tombale. Au temps qui meurt, Yéré oppose la parole qui demeure (...).
L'ouvrage de Gilles Kuitche Talé représente ce guide dont a besoin tout enseignant de langues étrangères en Afrique non seulement pour s'orienter en toute connaissance de cause à travers la multiplicité d'articles et d'instruments de travail qui seront de plus en plus disponibles sur Internet, mais aussi pour affronter résolument les choix didactiques quotidiens qu'impose le contact avec les apprenants; tout ceci en adoptant une démarche explorative et responsable, qui exploite à bon escient les suggestions des théories glottodidactiques tout en les adaptant aux exigences concrètes du contexte africain.
In this light, the designation « urban processes and change » acts to concentrate observations on aspects of social economy and the generation of urban cultures that seek to reopen questions about the aspirations and practices which configure specific instances of African urbanity. These considerations also entail the everyday life processes through which urban residents, associated through various networks and institutions, mediate different dimensions of power. The question is how they produce livelihoods which embody their own constructed meanings and understandings and adhere to the prevailing images and impositions of what urban life should be.
This working paper is an attempt to construct an approach to the analysis of political disorder (in the sense of partial or total obliteration of instituted order) in which territorial elements could be seen as keys for interpretation. The goal is to contribute to the development of conceptual tools adequate for use in interpretation. This paper challenges certain familiar concepts such as that of the border, as well as other concepts which are beginning to become familiar, such as the concept of the « Terroir », and it advances new concepts, notably those of territorial dissidence and imagined territory whose heuristic possibilities may be greater.
In Saviors and Survivors, Mahmood Mamdani explains how the conflict in Darfur began as a civil war (1987-89) between nomadic and peasant tribes over fertile land in the south, triggered by a severe drought that had expanded the Sahara Desert by more than sixty miles in forty years; how British colonial officials had artificially tribalized Darfur, dividing its population into « native » and « settler » tribes and-creating homelands for the former at the expense of the latter; how the war intensified in the 1990s when the Sudanese government tried unsuccessfully to address the problem by creating homelands for tribes without any. The involvement of opposition parties gave rise in 2003 to two rebel movements, leading to a brutal insurgency and a horrific counterinsurgency - but not to genocide, as the West has declared. Mamdani also explains how the Cold War exacerbated the twenty-year civil war in neighboring Chad, creating a confrontation between Libya's Muammar al-Qaddafi (with Soviet support) and the Reagan administration (allied with France and Israel) that spilled over into Darfur and militarized the fighting. By 2003, the war involved national, regional and global forces, including the powerful Western lobby, who now saw it as part of the War on Terror and called for a military invasion dressed up as « humanitarian intervention. » « Mamdani traces the path to the Darfur tragedy through its historical and colonial roots to the current situation, where drought and desertification have led to conflict over land among local tribes, rebellion, and finally to the brutal involvement of the forces of the state and to the efforts of the United Nations and others to help the victims and stop the violence. His radical réévaluation of the Darfur problem is a major contribution to understanding and, it is to be hoped, to ending a shocking human disaster. » - Sir Brian Urquhart Former Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations « There are three reasons why this book's perspective on the Sudan-Darfur conflict may be of considerable value to readers interested in African politics and international relations. First, Saviors and Survivors is unique in that it presents an African-centered perspective on the Sudan-Darfur crisis in the context of the study of international relations, geopolitics and the War on Terror. Second, it draws attention to African regional, epistemological and ideological perspectives on the crisis. Third, it tackles the bogeyman of African politics-the national-ethnic question in the context of cultural pluralism... Hidden in the middle of Saviors and Survivors' controversial thesis critiquing international interventionism is Mamdani s scholarly genius. The book scrutinizes, critically analyzes, deconstructs and reconstructs the deep historical transformations that constitute the underbelly of the continents post-colonial citizenship structures. »
Zimbabwe : The Political Economy of Transition focuses on the relationship between the imperialist and white settler colonial legacy on the one hand, and the pattern of political and socio-eonomic development in the post-independence era on the other. To what extent and with what consequences does this legacy-its political, economic, social, cultural and ideological manifestations-constitute structural limitations on the developmental momentum and ambitions of Zimbabwe? Given the nature and history of the National Liberation Movement, its class and ideological content, how is the new state in Zimbabwe to be characterized in terms of new alliances and stances, and in the light of the current configuration of forces at the regional and global levels? And, therefore, what have been the achievements and pitfalls? And, on the basis of such analyses, what of the future?
The relationship between development and historical traditions has pervaded theories of social development since the 19th century. This has been particularly true of the transformation of agrarian societies, as is shown by the great debates that centered on the future of the mir in Russia, the transition from feudalism to capitalism in western Europe, the incorporation of the Indian communities in the Americas into the capitalist system and by the controversy surrounding the so-called Asiatic mode of production in the Orient. What is striking about all these theories is that not only are they historical but also have a very strong geo-social referent However, this has not deterred most students of African societies from employing the same geo-social analogies in their analysis of the transformations that have occurred on the continent since the advent of colonialism. In this respect modernization and diffusionist theories of the 1950s and 1960s should be seen as nothing else but cruder culturalist (and imperialist) versions of classical European theories. In consequence those concerned (including colonized Africans) can be accused of having willfully ignored the specificity of the African geo-social context...
« This is a ground-breaking, nuanced and comprehensive book that grapples with how developing countries in general and Ghana in particular have endured and responded to a decade of neo-liberal ascendancy. Based on astute research, experiences and analysis, the book offers penetrating commentaries on recent socio-economic and political developments in Ghana. A « must-read » collection of excellent and stimulating ideas. » Mohamed Salih, Professor of Politics of Development, University of Leiden and the Institute of Social Studies, The Netherlands « This, the first book-length assessment of the latest experiment in liberal democracy in Ghana, is a timely study. It shows in an admirable way both the progress and the still existing shortcomings in the institutionalization of liberal democracy and will undoubtedly attract a wide readership in academic and policy-making circles. » Ghana has witnessed a « revolution through the ballot box » since its return to constitutional rule in 1993. Yet this period of sustained democratic government in an era of globalization and liberal triumphalism has brought with it new demands. How has Ghana faced up to the problems of institution-building, state-market relations and democratic leadership? Can it deal with the challenges posed by security, human rights and foreign policy in the twenty-first century? This unique collection interrogates all these issues and assesses the future of the democratic experiment in one of sub-Saharan Africa's rare « islands of peace ». In doing so, it provides an invaluable guide to Ghana's political past, present and future.
The Sub-Saharan and Sahelian drought of the 1970s and the Ethiopian famine of the 1980s tragically and dramatically focussed world attention on the gravity of the ecological crisis in Africa. The television brought home the images of an ecologically devastated continent to the people in the developed countries who responded generously through the donation of food, clothes, and money for the victims. Unfortunately, after the television cameras were turned off and attention focussed elsewhere, the problems have remained as intractable as ever. Indeed Africa's current economic crisis is seen by some largely as an environmental crisis1. Unfortunately, many people in Africa as in most parts of the developing world until recently regard the concern for environment as a luxury which may distract attention from the more urgent and serious problem of achieving a fast rate of economic growth. This attitude stems in part from the belief that environmental degradation is an inevitable price of development. Perhaps more importantly is the fact that many people in developing nations could not identify with the « green movement » in the more advanced countries whose initial impetus and orientation has been described as « anti-growth and anti-industrial development »2. However within the past few years, there has been a perceptible shift of attitudes as the realization that measures to solve or ameliorate ecological degradation deserve to be accorded a high priority. Yet in spite of this new awareness, Africa still lags behind especially in the current debate on the global environmental change.
This book is an interrogation of African studies, its formulations and fetishes, theories and trends, possibilities and pitfalls. As a discursive formation, African studies is, of course, immersed in the contexts and configurations of the western epistemological order. « This is a « docu-drama » in book form. It uses both fact and fiction, and mobilizes both the computer and the muse. Paul Tiyambe Zeleza reinterprets the African condition and examines those who study it. Especially fascinating is his scrutiny of Africa's most dangerous marabouts of the twentieth century - academic Africanists from Western and neo-western universities. Postmodernism and postcoloniality may still be in vogue, but this book inaugurates the new era of post-pessimism. » Prof. Ali A. Mazrui, Albert Schweitzer Professor in the Humanities, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York « The Manufacturing African Studies and Crises is a provocative and stimulating book written by a brilliant angry mind. It is a challenge to the practice of African Studies and its political significance. The book is important for all Africanists. It will upset you, as it did me, and force you to re-evaluate our work and understand our predicament as students of African cultures and affairs. » Prof. V. Y. Mudimbe, William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of French, Comparative Literature & Classics, Stanford University, Stanford, California « To the student of Africa, this collection of essays offers irreverent insights of an informed outsider, at a time when the field is in great need of reflection. To some in the « African Studies » establishment, its words may prick like coming from the pen of an inside agitator. If the result has the feel of a bitter medicine, it will be no less therapeutic for those who dare read through it. In short, Zeleza's book merits diverse audiences and has the potential of triggering a much-needed soul-searching in « African Studies ». Prof. Mahmood Mamdani, University of Cape Town, South Africa « One of the most comprehensive and effective rebuttals of the way in which Africa has been studied in much of North America and Europe. » Prof. Adebayo O. Olukoshi, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, Sweden
Since the late 50s when most countries on the continent achieved their independence, Africa and African societies have been subject to the most shrewd queries and problems. However, despite all the literature produced, it should be recognized, that to date, both Africa and African societies have baffled the analysis of the social scientists and of those in charge of development.
Since independence in 1980, Zimbabwe's radical socialist government has struggled to steer the nation into development and prosperity. The engine for that drive has been public administration - but one inherited from a distinctly different, and antagonistic, colonial past. How can the interests of the « keepers of the past » ever coincide with those of the « engineers of change? » This book lifts the lid on the contradictions, constraints and difficulties in pursuing policies for change within a rusting and out-of-date administration system. Conflicts and competition between politicians and civil servants easily erode well-intentioned policies. Production of vital resources are regulated by the state. Globalisation and technological change cannot be addressed let alone manipulated without a responsive public sector. How the private sector meshes with state industry is dependent on the skills of public administration. Several writers also look into public administration itself - staff morale, gender policy, pay and conditions. Drawing on the specifically Zimbabwean experience of researchers, academics, policy makers and administrators, the book explores several critical issues about the historical and current development of public administration as an instrument of the state.
The framework we have chosen for the study attempts to provide a systemic picture of peasant society's struggle for existence. The resource flow system's approach regards everyday forms of peasant survival as essential to the understanding of the socio-economic condition and potential of rural society. The flow of resources among peasant households, and between peasant households and outsiders, goes on all the time, and in each case some lose and others gain. On the other hand, the peasant household itself is both a production and consumption unit, and what it produces, allocates and consumes constitutes on a micro level a resource flow system, also involving losses and gains.
This brilliant contribution to African social science presents an original theory of social formations with a new methodological approach. Professor Mafeje critically reviews the works of orthodox anthropologists, questioning the impact on African Studies of both development theory and classical ethnography. Within a context of redefining forms of political organization, he uses research on the East African Lacustrian Kingdoms to analyse the articulation of the relationship between political and economic power. Arguing that pastoralism and agriculture need not represent different modes of production, but rather socially controlled options within the same mode, he rejects articulation theory and the concept of feudalism. Finally he evaluates the impact of colonial capitalism on different social formations. It is an outstanding theoretical contribution that raises new perspectives on the classic issues of exploitation, class and social change in African societies. « A major breakthrough in the study of these state formations ». Professor Peter Rigby Author of Persistent Pastoralists (Zed, 1985)
The Congo mission of CODESRIA took place in September 1997, in the interregnum between the First Rebellion against Mobutu and the Second Rebellion against Kabila. The mission comprised two members, Jacques Depelchin and Mahmood Mamdani (chair).1 Conceptualized as the first of a two-phased focus on the crisis in the Great Lakes region, the Congo mission was to concentrate specifically on the region of Kivu. In that context, the Mission was asked : a)to meet different categories of people to establish a sense of the situation on the ground; b)to engage local researchers with a view to recommending a research agenda directly relating to the crisis in the region; c)to recommend a programme of action to be followed by CODESRIA in the region
From the social point of view, the study hopes to contribute to the solution of ethnic conflicts in Africa. The need for a solution is urgent because of the pervasiveness of these conflicts, and their destructiveness of African socio-political stability and economic progress. Ethnicity offers a personal solution to the generic problems of exploitation and oppression. Therefore, under certain circumstances, the ethnic element may assume a greater importance than is warranted by its objective role in the scheme of things. Consequently, every effort is necessary to ensure that ethnic contradictions do not explode out of proportion.
« Riveting, compelling, engaging and inspiring... Not only is Kenya : The Struggle for Democracy a book of first-rate scholarship, it is an informative and readable treatise on the everyday expressions of Kenyan citizens' intense passion for openness, justice and responsible governance ». Lisa Aubrey, Ohio University « A very refreshing, rigorous, informative and multidisciplinary analysis of Kenya's transition to democratic governance, Kenya : The Struggle for Democracy not only identifies the reasons behind Kenya's failure to institutionalise democracy, but it also provides possible solutions ». John Mukum Mbaku, Willard L. Eccles Professor of Economics and John S. Hinckley Fellow, Weber State University « A moving and comprehensive analysis of institutions and actors that have shaped Kenya's future... For Africanists, this is compulsory reading which requires a response ». Winnie Mitullah, University of Nairobi.
Les difficultés dont sont confrontés les enfants et jeunes dans les villes africaines sont nombreuses. La population africaine connait de forts taux de croissance, ce qui fait d'elle une population constituée en bonne partie de jeunes. Cependant, les ressources économiques nécessaires au bien-être de cette population sont insuffisantes, ce qui se manifeste par des taux de chômage élevés, le manque de services publics, mais aussi par l'extrême pauvreté. Ces mauvaises conditions de vie dans les villes africaines poussent les enfants et jeunes à lutter pour leur suivie. Ce document regroupe des études menées dans différentes villes africaines, montrant comment les jeunes s'y débrouillent pour s'en sortir tant sur plan économique que social.
(Texte en anglais et en français)
Cet ouvrage présente les résultats d'une enquête menée auprès des promoteurs de 250 très petites et petites entreprises camerounaises par le Groupe National de Travail (GNT) Cameroun du Conseil pour le Développement de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales en Afrique (CODESRIA). Les résultats de cette enquête révèlent quelques tendances dominantes (fort potentiel humain des promoteurs camerounais, niveau de scolarisation élevé, forte expérience dans le secteur d'activité, rôle déterminant de l'engagement personnel des promoteurs ainsi que des structures informelles dans le processus d'accompagnement des très petites et petites entreprises, importance considérable du capital social (famille, amis, tontines, réseaux de proximité) dans l'activité de ces promoteurs. Cette réalité camerounaise confirme la particularité de la très petite et petite entreprise africaine dont l'insertion dans des réseaux sociaux de proximité constitue une stratégie forte de contournement des difficultés institutionnelles, sociopolitiques et économiques caractéristiques de l'environnement des affaires au Cameroun et en Afrique. Les résultats de cette étude sont révélateurs d'un modèle camerounais émergent d'accompagnement entrepreneurial à forte prégnance du capital humain et du capital social. Par ailleurs, ils sont une source d'interpellation des principaux acteurs du marché de l'accompagnement entrepreneurial quant à l'efficacité des pratiques d'accompagnement des promoteurs et des porteurs de projets d'entreprises.
This book is the outcome of a systematic process of reflection conducted by a multidisciplinary team of Zairian intellectuals, and focused on developments rocking Zaïre since independence. Against a backdrop of social upheaval, democratic protest, economic crisis and social anomie in this fabulously endowed country, observers have often wondered if history were not merely repeating itself. For there are uncanny similarities between the current spate of Zairian crises and the Congo crisis whose outbreak in the 1960s to the accompaniment of military mutinies, incursions of air-borne foreign troops, and violent conflicts between factions of the local ruling class propelled Africa with brutal suddenness onto the international scene. The challenge the authors of this volume took up was to present an alternative vision of a country on which much has already been written, projected this time by Zairian scholars from within Zaïre. The resulting volume has a vibrant, original tone. It addresses the central question : where might the many crises besetting Zaïre lead? In their search for answers, in an environment notoriously hostile to tranquil scholarly analysis, the contributing authors faced the task of finding the resources needed for clear-headed scholarly work. This work is their courageous achievement. It presents an array of carefully researched, fact-based scenarios making it an invaluable reference tool.
Africa is a continent rich in mineral and energy resources. But there is no escaping the alarming conclusion that these resources have been over-exploited in the interests of foreign accumulation. Most African countries are heavily dependent on mineral and oil earnings to run their production systems and pay for consumer imports. How have these mining and oil royalties failed to release them from this dependence? This book presents nine case studies of countries whose economies are based essentially on mineral resources. Using a critical and analytical approach African researchers highlight the capacity for capital goods production and the priorities for any development process aimed at an enhanced industrial integration and greater technological autonomy. The book is a major contribution to the debate on development and industrialisation in Africa not least because of the information and data it contains, in whose absence development policies will only stagnate in theoretical shells.
Ghana Under PNDC Rule analyses the changes in Ghanaian society under Rawlings's Provisional National Defence Council, the longest serving government in the country's turbulent history. Since 1981, Rawlings has become a favourite of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and his government's Structural Adjustment Programmes have been judged as the most thoroughgoing and consistent in the world. What shape did this transition from « revolution » to « economic recovery » take? What has been the effect of these policies on the Ghanaian economy, and more importantly, the Ghanaian people? Very little has been written about the policies and outcomes of the Rawlings regime. This book, written by Ghanaian scholars is a vital contribution to the written history of Ghana. Topics include the crisis of 1981 and the retreat from democratic rule and the role of the stale in achieving political objectives. Strategies of political mobilisation, are examined, as are the IMF and World Bank-influenced agricultural and economic policies. Changes in foreign policy and the law and the effects of PNDC policies on women and their impact on labour are also looked at in depth. This book is essential reading for any student, scholar, individual or organisation who is interested in Military rule, impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Africa.
Dani Wadada Nabudere, the illustrious Ugandan scholar, produced a diverse body of work on various aspects of African culture, politics, and philosophy. Toward the end of his life, he formulated a theoretical construct that he termed « Afrikology ». Unlike most other Afrocentrists, who have stopped with the task of proving the primacy of the Egyptian past and its numerous cultural and scientific achievements, Nabudere strenuously attempts to connect that illustrious heritage with the African present. This, remarkably, is what makes his project worthy of careful attention. His corpus is multidisciplinary, although a major preoccupation with Africa is discernible in virtually all his works. His writings deal with critiques of imperialism, African political systems, processes of globalization and Africa's location within them, and finally the ideological and existential imperatives of Afrocentric discourse.