Conseil de l'Europe

  • La plupart des pays d'Europe mais aussi du reste du monde sont confrontés aux difficultés liées aux migrations internationales et à l'intégration des minorités. Il revient en premier lieu aux villes de concevoir et de mettre en oeuvre des politiques favorisant la cohésion communautaire et présentant la diversité culturelle comme un facteur de développement plutôt que comme une menace.



    Ce guide est destiné aux responsables municipaux et aux praticiens qui souhaitent tirer profit du projet pilote des cités interculturelles, mené conjointement par le Conseil de l'Europe et la Commission européenne, pour le développement d'une approche interculturelle de la gestion de la diversité et de l'intégration. Cette approche repose sur l'expérience de dizaines de villes qui ont réorienté leurs politiques et réorganisé leur gouvernance pour garantir l'égalité des chances et faire de la diversité un avantage.



    Cet ouvrage indique des étapes à franchir et des mesures à prendre pour contribuer à l'élaboration d'une stratégie interculturelle et assurer le suivi de sa mise en oeuvre. Il illustre les éléments d'une telle stratégie par des analyses, des suggestions et des exemples de pratiques de différentes villes européennes.



    Une ville qui s'engage sur la voie des cités interculturelles doit être confiante et inventive pour éventuellement adapter les actions et concepts généraux décrits dans ce guide aux circonstances locales.



    Voilà pourquoi ce guide n'est pas un manuel d'instructions mais plutôt un aide-mémoire qui assistera les villes au fur et à mesure qu'elles traceront leur propre trajectoire.

  • Ce manuel pédagogique propose une série d'activités et d'exercices pour l´éducation à la citoyenneté démocratique (ECD) et l´éducation aux droits de l´homme (EDH) à l´école ou dans des cadres d'apprentissage informels. Conçues pour éveiller la curiosité des élèves, ces activités les aideront à comprendre les principes fondamentaux de la démocratie et des droits de l´homme.
    Le degré requis de réflexion étant variable, la plupart des exercices peuvent être adaptes à différents groupes d'âge. Des auteurs de toutes les régions d'Europe ont contribue à ce manuel; puisant dans différentes sources et traditions d'enseignement, ils ont sélectionné des activités qu'ils ont eux-mêmes expérimentées en classe. Cet ouvrage offre l´occasion d'aborder et d'expérimenter différentes approches et traditions en matière d'éducation aux droits de l´homme et à la citoyenneté démocratique.

  • Grandir dans la démocratique est un manuel destiné aux enseignants qui souhaitent intégrer l'éducation à la citoyenneté democratique (ECD) et l'éducation aux droits de l'homme (EDH) dans leur pratique quotidienne. Il comprend neuf modules d'enseignement de quatre leçons, qui donnent progressivement des instructions et incluent des documents à distribuer aux élèves ainsi que des informations de référence pour les enseignants. Le manuel fournit le programme d'une année scolaire pour les classes de fin de primaire (élèves entre 10 et 11 ans), mais sa structure (neuf modules distincts complets) permet une grande flexibilité. Il intéresse donc aussi les éditeurs de manuels scolaires, les concepteurs de programmes, les formateurs des enseignants, les enseignants en formation et leurs collègues débutants.L'ECD/EDH a pour objectif de faire de chaque enfant un citoyen actif, curieux et capable de prendre part à la vie démocratique. C'est pourquoi l'ECD/EDH souligne l'importance de l'apprentissage fondé sur l'action et les exercices. La collectivité scolaire est conçue comme une sphère d'expériences authentiques où les élèves peuvent apprendre à participer à la prise de décisions démocratiques et à assumer tôt des responsabilités. L'enseignement des concepts clés de l'ECD/EDH est également dispensé en tant qu'outil d'apprentissage tout au long de la vie.

  • Emmener des élèves au Mémorial et au Musée d'Auschwitz-Birkenau est une lourde responsabilité. Cet acte citoyen important contribue néanmoins à mieux faire comprendre ce que représente Auschwitz alors que disparaissent les derniers survivants.Cet ouvrage est destiné à fa fois aux enseignants organisant des visites pédagogiques sur des lieux authentiques de mémoire, ainsi qu'aux guides, chercheurs et éducateurs qui, au quotidien, travaillent au contact des jeunes à Auschwitz.La visite d'un lieu authentique de mémoire n'a rien de magique et nécessite une méthodologie réfléchie appropriée. Afin de prévenir tout comportement inadéquat de la part des jeunes et un non-retour sur investissement, une préparation et une réflexion avant et après la visite s'imposent. Les enseignants doivent préparer les jeunes à une approche didactique qu'ils peuvent n'avoir jamais envisagée auparavant.Ce pack offre un aperçu de la complexité du comportement humain qui permet à l'eleve de mieux appréhender ce qu'est un citoyen. En quoi est-il directement concerné par ce qui s'est passé à Auschwitz ? Comment les mécanismes d'exclusion tels que développés dans le cas, sans précèdent, de l'Holocauste sont-ils encore présents et actifs dans la société européenne d'aujourd'hui, sous forme de racisme ou d'antisémitisme ?Enfin et surtout, les jeunes qui vont visiter Auschwitz dans les prochaines années deviendront les témoins des derniers témoins, les maillons de la mémoire. Leur génération sera la dernière à avoir entendu sur place les derniers survivants.Le Conseil de l'Europe, le ministère polonais de l'Education et le Mémorial et Musée d'Auschwitz-Birkenau sont à l'origine de ce projet commun dans une perspective de prévention des crimes contre l'humanité à partir de l'enseignement de la mémoire de l'Holocauste.

  • Freedom of expression is not absolute, even though it is a fundamental right enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. Under the terms of the Article 10 of the Convention, its exercise may be subject to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and are "necessary in a democratic society" in order to uphold the rights of all individuals.
    The author compares and analyses the protection of and limits on the right to freedom of expression in the case law of European constitutional courts and the European Court of Human Rights, drawing on practical examples, to see whether a common European approach exists in this area.

  • This report analyses the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in terms of the promotion of cultural diversity, as championed by the Council of Europe particularly through its "White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue" (2008). The Court's views on the governance principles and preconditions of intercultural dialogue - and particularly the case law on freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of expression and freedom of association and assembly - provide guidelines for politicians, academics and practitioners alike.

  • Taking groups of students to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum is a heavy responsibility, but it is a major contribution to citizenship if it fosters understanding of what Auschwitz stands for, particularly when the last survivors are at the end of their lives. It comes with certain risks, however.
    This pack is designed for teachers wishing to organise student visits to authentic places of remembrance, and for the guides, academics and others who work every day with young people at Auschwitz.
    There is nothing magical about visiting an authentic place of remembrance, and it calls for a carefully thought-out approach. To avoid the risk of inappropriate reactions or the failure to benefit from a large investment in travel and accommodation, considerable preparation and discussion is necessary before the visit and serious reflection afterwards. Teachers must prepare students for a form of learning they may never have met before.
    This pack offers insights into the complexities of human behaviour so that students can have a better understanding of what it means to be a citizen. How are they concerned by what happened at Auschwitz? Is the unprecedented process of exclusion that was practised in the Holocaust still going on in Europe today? In what sense is it different from present-day racism and anti-Semitism?
    The young people who visit Auschwitz in the next few years will be witnesses of the last witnesses, links in the chain of memory. Their generation will be the last to hear the survivors speaking on the spot.
    The Council of Europe, the Polish Ministry of Education and the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum are jointly sponsoring this project aimed at preventing crimes against humanity through Holocaust remembrance teaching.

  • Migration to and within Europe has profoundly changed the life and image of the continent. This guide offers theoretical and practical tools for an innovative approach to a key political issue: how, along with our immigrant fellow-citizens, can we build a fair and plural society that ensures the well-being or all?
    By moving beyond rigid categories like "foreigner", "immigrant" and "illegal , and ambiguous concepts like "identity", "diversity , "immigration control and "integration", this guide suggests that policy makers, civil servants and citizens need to question their own vocabulary if they are to grasp the complexity and uniqueness or people's migration paths.
    Perceiving migrants simply from the host country's point or view - the security, well-being and life-style of its nationals - has limitations. We cannot see people of foreign origin only as a threat or a resource to be exploited. If we see them as stereotypes, we are seeing only a mirror of European fears and contradictory aspirations. This guide helps readers decode and address the structural problems of our society, looking at the accusations made against migrants and the utilitarian view or the advantages that immigrants bring to host societies.
    In publishing this guide, the Council or Europe is seeking to initiate an in-depth debate on the migration issue, which is so high on the European political agenda.

  • Dozens of investments have been made in cultural monuments and historic environments in the countries of South-East Europe over the last decade in accordance with the principles of the European Union and Council of Europe Ljubljana Process.

  • Political rhetoric on human rights in Europe is different from daily reality. Almost every politician is on record as favouring the protection of freedom and justice. Standards on human rights have been agreed at European and international level; many have been integrated into national law; but they are not consistently enforced. There is an implementation gap.
    It is this implementation gap that this book seeks to address. It is built on a compilation of separate "viewpoints" or articles which Thomas Hammarberg has written, and later updated, since beginning his mandate as Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights in April 2006. He has now visited almost all of the 47 member states of the Council of Europe. On each visit he has met victims of violations of human rights and their families, leading politicians, prosecutors, judges, ombudsmen, religious leaders, journalists and civil society representatives as well as inmates of prisons and other institutions, law enforcement personnel and others. The "viewpoints" written on the basis of these many visits summarise his reflections, conclusions and recommendations.

  • What laws should states enact to protect and promote their cultural heritage, and what administrative systems can they put in place to manage their cultural heritage policies most effectively? This revised and expanded guidance document aims to provide authoritative information on good practice in three primary areas:
    - the architectural heritage;
    - the archaeological heritage; and - the movable heritage.
    Consideration is given to integrated approaches to conservation, in particular those which take into account the global concept of sustainable development and the need for community involvement in formulating legal and institutional mechanisms.
    This publication is part of a series launched in 2000 on topics of general interest, based on experience acquired through pilot projects in different countries, and made available to all those involved in heritage in the member states of the Council of Europe.

  • Many people in Europe are stigmatised because of their sexual orientation or gender identity and cannot fully enjoy their universal human rights. Some of them are victims of violence, others have fled to Europe from countries where they risk being persecuted. Organisations representing lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons have been denied registration or banned from organising peaceful meetings in some states in Europe. Too few politicians have taken a firm stand against homophobic and transphobic expressions, discrimination and violence.
    This report presents the results of the largest socio-legal study ever carried out on discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the 47 member states of the Council of Europe. Six thematic chapters give a broad overview of the human rights situation of LGBT persons and recommendations are provided for developing and implementing effective measures to address discrimination.
    The report is intended as a tool for dialogue with authorities and other stakeholders. It constitutes a baseline study for further action in both legislative and policy fields to ensure that all LGBT people can effectively exercise their human rights.

  • Not by bread alone gathers essays on higher education, including some written especially for this book. They cover three key areas: the missions of higher education, public responsibility and qualifications. Together, these essays spell out a view of higher education as a key factor in developing modern societies built on the fundamental Council of Europe values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law. They also underline the key role of higher education in developing the ability of our societies to conduct intercultural dialogue.
    To fulfil its role, higher education needs to prepare for citizenship as well as for employment, for personal development as well as for the development of a broad knowledge base. Our vision of higher education and its multiple purposes must be reflected in the way we view qualifications. We also need to take a close look at how the public responsibility for higher education and research can best be exercised in a society with many actors, all of which have their own legitimate agendas. In this situation, public authorities have an overall responsibility for coherent education policies.

  • Defending ethics in sport is vital in order to combat the problems of corruption, violence, drugs, extremism and other forms of discrimination it is currently facing. Sport reflects nothing more and nothing less than the societies in which it takes place. However, if sport is to continue to bring benefits for individuals and societies, it cannot afford to neglect its ethical values or ignore these scourges.
    The major role of the Council of Europe and the Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport (EPAS) in addressing the new challenges to sports ethics was confirmed by the 11th Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Sport, held in Athens on 11 and 12 December 2008. A political impetus was given on 16 June 2010 by the Committee of Ministers, with the adoption of an updated version of the Code of Sports Ethics (Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)9), emphasising the requisite co-ordination between governments and sports organisations.
    The EPAS prepared the ministerial conference and stepped up its work in an international conference organised with the University of Rennes, which was attended by political leaders, athletes, researchers and officials from the voluntary sector. The key experiences described in the conference and the thoughts that it prompted are described in this publication. All the writers share the concern that the end result should be practical action - particularly in terms of the setting of standards - that falls within the remit of the EPAS and promotes the Council of Europe's core values.

  • Inequality limits young people's chances in life. Yet equality is the basis of democracy and Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights secures the rights and freedoms of the young "without discrimination on any ground".
    Research shows that inequality - in opportunities, wealth or health, for example - is widespread in Europe and that the citizens of richer countries do not necessarily have healthier profiles than those of poorer countries. The citizens of egalitarian countries, on the other hand, have the highest life expectancy.
    This book examines many aspects of inequality and opportunity for young people including schooling, employment, social exclusion, labour migration, trafficking, disability, cultural and religious discrimination, youth work, and opposition and resistance.

  • Greece is the 20th country to have had its youth policy reviewed by an international review team appointed by the Council of Europe. The financial crisis and resulting high unemployment rate, especially among young people, was the major concern encountered by the review team. Although the crisis has compelled Greece to engage in profound fiscal reform and address many of its structural weaknesses, this has not been matched by labour market activation policies and other youth policy measures needed to reverse the mood of despondency and stem the tide of emigration of young people.This international review focused in particular on two aspects of youth transitions: the transition from the education system to the labour market; and the related issue of military service and conscription, which is an integral part of life for young men in Greece. The review team also considered characteristics of the public administration, which dwells on bureaucratic compliance and has limited scope and licence for fostering initiative and creativity, despite incessant rhetoric about the need for "entrepreneurship".The review team advocates the establishment of more creative and innovative mechanisms to free the entrepreneurial and participative spirit not only of young people in Greece, but also of its regional and local administrations, youth organisations and local youth councils, in order for them to provide timely and purposeful intervention, opportunity and support according to local need and circumstances.

  • The training programme for Roma mediators, launched in 2011, is unique in terms of the fundamental effects it produces, both in Europe at large and in the 47 member states of the Council of Europe.



    This work sets out to contextualise the initiatives taken, highlight their utility and evaluate them. It is intended to provide guidance for the programme leaders, enable active participants - trainers, mediators, employers and others - to see their efforts as part of an overall scheme, help policy makers to take the right decisions and describe and explain the operation to a broader audience.



    The programme's activities concerning Roma are a model for positive action. They make an effective contribution to European co-operation, action to combat discrimination and marginalisation and the search for ways to improve difficult situations. ROMED therefore helps to fuel the development of intercultural policies capable of managing present-day societies, of which diversity and pluralism are the hallmarks.

  • The work of the Council of Europe for democracy is strongly based on education: education in schools, and education as a lifelong learning process of practising democracy, such as in non-formal learning activities. Human rights education and education for democratic citizenship form an integral part of what we have to secure to make democracy sustainable.



    Hate speech is one of the most worrying forms of racism and discrimination prevailing across Europe and amplified by the Internet and social media. Hate speech online is the visible tip of the iceberg of intolerance and ethnocentrism. Young people are directly concerned as agents and victims of online abuse of human rights; Europe needs young people to care and look after human rights, the life insurance for democracy.



    Bookmarks is published to support the No Hate Speech Movement youth campaign of the Council of Europe for human rights online. Bookmarks is useful for educators wanting to address hate speech online from a human rights perspective, both inside and outside the formal education system. The manual is designed for working with learners aged 13 to 18 but the activities can be adapted to other age ranges.

  • With the rise of the Internet, the opportunities to express oneself have grown exponentially, as have the challenges to freedom of expression. From the Arab Spring to the global Occupy movement, freedom of expression on the Internet has had a profound impact on the debates which shape our future. At the same time, an increasing number of states use the Internet to spy on journalists and citizens, to prosecute and jail bloggers, and to censor online information. This book sets out to answer essential questions regarding the extent and limits of freedom of expression online. It seeks to shed light on the often obscure landscape of what we are allowed to say online and how our ideas, and the process of imparting and receiving information, are protected. It shows the large ambit of rights protected by freedom of expression - including freedom of the media and the right to access information via the Internet. It also highlights the importance of the standard-setting, monitoring and promotion activities of international and non-governmental organisations, with a chapter on relevant national practices that illustrates how different states deal with the challenge that the Internet has brought to ensuring freedom of expression for all. As the importance of the Internet in our daily lives grows, readers will find this book to be a valuable resource for understanding the rights and obligations of each actor on the Internet, including states, Internet companies and civil society.

  • L´action du Conseil de l´Europe en faveur de la démocratie est fortement axée sur l´éducation : l´éducation à l´école, mais aussi l´éducation en tant que pratique de la démocratie tout au long de la vie, comme dans le cadre des activités d´apprentissage non formel. L´éducation aux droits de l´homme et l´éducation à la citoyenneté démocratique font partie intégrante du socle que nous devons bâtir pour faire de la démocratie une réalité durable.
    Le discours de haine est l´une des formes les plus inquiétantes de racisme et de discrimination qui sévit aujourd´hui en Europe, amplifiée par internet et les médias sociaux. Le discours de haine en ligne n´est que la partie visible de l´iceberg de l´intolérance et de l´ethnocentrisme. Les jeunes sont directement concernés, en tant qu´acteurs et victimes d´abus des droits de l´homme en ligne. L´Europe a besoin que les jeunes veillent aux droits de l´homme et les protègent : c´est là l´assurance-vie de la démocratie.
    Connexions vise à soutenir le Mouvement contre le discours de haine, autrement dit, la campagne de la jeunesse du Conseil de l´Europe pour les droits de l´homme en ligne. Connexions est un outil précieux pour les éducateurs qui souhaitent aborder le discours de haine en ligne sous l´angle des droits de l´homme, tant dans le système éducatif formel que dans le cadre de l´éducation informelle. Ce manuel a été conçu pour travailler avec des apprenants de 13 à 18 ans, mais les activités proposées peuvent être adaptées à d´autres groupes d´âge.

  • Cet ouvrage propose aux spécialistes de l´éducation des pistes de réflexions sur le défi que représente dans les communautés plurielles la diversité des religions et convictionnelle. Quatre équipes de chercheurs, en provenance d´Algérie, d´Espagne, d´Italie et du Maroc, ont analysé la place de l´éducation à la diversité religieuse à l´école dans le cadre du projet du Conseil de l´Europe « Education et diversité religieuse en Méditerranée occidentale ».
    Les travaux ont mis en évidence l´interdépendance de la réflexion sur la place de la religion à l´école entre les rives nord et sud de la Méditerranée. En effet, les migrants en Europe obligent les pouvoirs publics et les systèmes éducatifs à réfléchir autrement à la question religieuse à l´école. Au Maghreb, l´expérience des pays comme l´Espagne ou l´Italie dans l´évolution des liens institutionnels entre État et religion est un élément clef du débat actuel sur la place de la religion à l´école et dans la démocratisation en cours des sociétés maghrébines.
    Les chercheurs considèrent que l´on ne peut pas traiter les religions à l´école par la mise à l´écart, l´ignorance ou l´exclusion, car les élèves ne laissent pas leurs convictions religieuses et non religieuses ou leurs spiritualités à domicile. Tout le défi est, dès lors, de tenter d´identifier les meilleurs moyens pédagogiques pour introduire des connaissances, des compétences et des comportements appropriés à propos des religions.

  • La Convention européenne en matière d'adoption des enfants (révisée) (CEAER) a été introduite par le Conseil de l'Europe en 2008 afin d'instituer un cadre moderne dans ce domaine. Elle représente un consensus international sur ce qui constitue une procédure acceptable d'adoption des enfants, en tenant compte des différents points de vue, de la diversité juridique et du patrimoine commun des Etats membres.

    Cet ouvrage offre une analyse et un commentaire approfondis de chacun des 30 articles de la convention révisée. Cette étude exhaustive révèle les changements et évolutions intervenus depuis l'élaboration de la Convention de 1967 en matière d'adoption des enfants. C'est une source unique et détaillée d'informations pour les juges, les travailleurs sociaux, les parlementaires et les praticiens de l'adoption sur tous les aspects de la CEAER. Ce texte clair et incisif est divisé en trois parties, débutant par une vue d'ensemble de la convention, suivie d'un examen des principes généraux et s'achevant par les clauses finales.

  • Ce rapport fait partie d´une série d´analyses internationales des politiques nationales de jeunesse menées par le Conseil de l´Europe, en collaboration et en consultation avec les agences gouvernementales et les ministères responsables du développement et de la mise en oeuvre de la politique de jeunesse, ainsi qu´avec les organisations non gouvernementales de jeunesse. Les analyses sont menées par une équipe internationale qui présente les forces de la politique de jeunesse du pays et, de façon constructive, les défis que ce pays doit relever dans ce domaine, en s´appuyant le cas échéant sur des preuves et des débats de portée internationale.



    Le processus des analyses internationales a été introduit en vue de remplir trois fonctions distinctes :

    - fournir des conseils sur les politiques nationales de jeunesse ;

    - identifier les composantes dont la combinaison pourrait constituer l´approche d´une politique de jeunesse en Europe ;

    - contribuer à un processus d´apprentissage lié au développement et à la mise en oeuvre d´une politique de jeunesse.

  • Right to Remember is a self-contained educational resource for all those wishing to promote a deeper awareness of the Roma Genocide and combat discrimination. The handbook is based on the principles of human rights education, and places remembrance as an aspect of learning about, through and for human rights.
    Strengthening the identity of Roma young people is a priority for the Roma Youth Action Plan of the Council of Europe. This implies the creation of an environment where they can grow up free from discrimination and confident about their identity and future perspectives, while appreciating their history and their plural cultural backgrounds and affiliations.
    The Roma Genocide carried out before and during the Second World War has deeply impacted on Roma communities across Europe and plays a central role in understanding the prevailing antigypsyim and discrimination against Roma. Learning about the Genocide is very important for all young people. For Roma young people it is also a way to understand what was perpetrated against their communities, and to help them to com to terms with their identity and situation today.
    Involving young people, including Roma youth, in researching, discussing and discovering the meanings of the Roma Genocide is a way to involve them as agents and actors in their own understanding of human rights and of history.
    Right to Remember includes educational activities, as well as ideas for commemoration events, and information about the Genocide and its relevance to the situation of the Roma people today. It has been designed primarily for youth workers in non-formal settings, but it will be useful for anyone working in education, including in schools.

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