Serbia´s national movement of the 1980s and 1990s, the author suggests, was not the product of an ancient, immutable, and aggressive Serbian national identity; nor was it an artificial creation of powerful political actors looking to capitalize on its mobilizing power. Miller argues that cultural processes are too often ignored in favor of political ones; that Serbian intellectuals did work within a historical context, but that they were not slaves to the past. His subjects are Dobrica ´Cosi´c (a novelist), Mi´ca Popovi´c (a painter) and Borislav Mihajlovi´c Mihiz (a literary critic). These three influential Serbian intellectuals concluded by the late 1960s that communism had failed the Serbian people; together, they helped forge a new Serbian identity that fused older cultural imagery with modern conditions. "Theoretically informed, elegantly written, and rich in necessary nuances, the book offers a corrective to simplistic, one-dimensional interpretations of the role of intellectuals in the rise of Serbian nationalism. It provides a critical analysis of the meanders of national politics during the Tito regime. The discussion of the Rankovi´c affair and its role in catalyzing ´Cosi´c´s sense of Serbs being victims of national discrimination is among the best in literature. For Miller, like for such authors as Isaiah Berlin and Leah Greenfeld, nationalism is a matter of dignity." Vladimir Tismaneanu, University of Maryland "Nick Miller is the riveting stylist who happens to be a historian, and the judicious historian who happens to be a writer. His humane and passionate account of the `Nonconformists´ will cause those who have read everything on the subject to rethink what they know; and those who have read not a single book to want to know more. Both sets of readers-and those in between-will find this book exceptionally edifying." John Connelly, University of California Berkeley "Miller´s insightful study tackles the interaction of culture, politics, and nationalism in Serbia since 1945. Skillfully avoiding the extremes typical of much existing literature, which tends to describe nationalism in Serbia either as the expression of centuries old ethnic hatreds or the creation of unscrupulous politicians, Miller offers an entirely new approach grounding it in the specific postwar experiences of a small but important group of Serbian intellectuals. With tightly woven prose and dry humor, Miller shows how the genuine and sincere intellectuals who inspired unscrupulous politicians like Milosevi´c evolved from humanists `willing to let communism have its chance´ into committed nationalists. As we enter their psyches, and learn their individual backgrounds and experiences, we begin to see why their message was so effective and the masses so easily manipulated. Thus Miller´s work connects politics to the realm of culture in a way that is critical to understanding the events of the last decades." Carol Lilly, University of Nebraska
The main issues arising from the encounter between Roma people and surrounding European society since the time of their arrival in Medieval Europe until today are discussed in this work. The history of their persecution and genocide during the Nazi era, in particular, is central to the present volume. Significantly, some authors sought to emphasize the continuing history of prejudice and persecution, which reached a peak during the Nazi era and persisted after the war. Current questions of social integration in Europe, as well as that of ethnic definition and the construction of ethnic-national identity constitute another principal pillar of the book. The complexity of issues involved, such as collective memory, myth-making and social constructionism, trigger intense debate among researchers dealing with Romani studies. This volume is the result of an international conference held at Tel Aviv University in December 2002. The conference, one of the largest held among the academic community in the last decade, served as a unique forum for a multidisciplinary discussion on the past and present of the Roma in which both Roma and non-Roma scholars from various countries engaged.
Twentieth-century Southeastern Europe endured three, separate decades of international and civil war, and was marred in forced migration and wrenching systematic changes. This book is the result of a year-long project by the Open Society Institute to examine and reappraise this tumultuous century. A cohort of young scholars with backgrounds in history, anthropology, political science, and comparative literature were brought together for this undertaking. The studies invite attention to fascism, socialism, and liberalism as well as nationalism and Communism. While most chapters deal with war and confrontation, they focus rather on the remembrance of such conflicts in shaping today's ideology and national identity. "This ably edited volume dealing with twentieth-century southeastern Europe is most welcome. ...the project coorrdinators came to an agreement with their collaborators to foicus on nationalis, communism, fascism, liberalism, and religion. And indeed, all of these elements may be found between the covers of this volume, although the contributors were evidently given free rein. ...this volume offers insights into some neglected areas and is a most welcome addition to the literature on the history of East Central Europe." - The American Historical Review "A truly unique and splendid addition to historical writing on southeastern Europe... Unique is the editors' insistence that each author include several translated primary sources. The diversity of sources is unrivaled by any documentary reader available to those of us who teach European, east European or Balkan history." - Slavic Review
This dramatic story of land and power from twentieth-century Eastern Europe is set in two extraordinary villages: a rebel village, where peasants fought the advent of Communism and became its first martyrs, and a model village turned forcibly into a town, Dictator Ceausescu´s birthplace. The two villages capture among themselves nearly a century of dramatic transformation and social engineering, ending up with their charged heritage in the present European Union. "One of Romania´s foremost social critics, Alina Mungiu-Pippidi offers a valuable look at several decades of policy that marginalized that country´s rural population, from the 1918 land reform to the post-1989 property restitution. Illustrating her arguments with a close comparison of two contrasting villages, she describes the actions of a long series of "predatory elites," from feudal landowners through the Communist Party through post-communist leaders, all of whom maintained the rural population´s dependency. A forceful concluding chapter shows that its prospects for improvement are scarcely better within the EU. Romania´s villagers have an eminent and spirited advocate in the author."
Argues for an original, unorthodox conception about the relationship between globalization and contemporary nationalism. While the prevailing view holds that nationalism and globalization are forces of clashing opposition, Sabanadze establishes that these tend to become allied forces. Acknowledges that nationalism does react against the rising globalization and represents a form of resistance against globalizing influences, but the Basque and Georgian cases prove that globalization and nationalism can be complementary rather than contradictory tendencies. Nationalists have often served as promoters of globalization, seeking out globalizing influences and engaging with global actors out of their very nationalist interests. In the case of both Georgia and the Basque Country, there is little evidence suggesting the existence of strong, politically organized nationalist opposition to globalization. Discusses why, on a broader scale, different forms of nationalism develop differing attitudes towards globalization and engage in different relationships.Conventional wisdom suggests that sub-state nationalism in the post-Cold War era is a product of globalization. Sabanadze´s work encourages a rethinking of this proposition. Through careful analysis of the Georgian and Basque cases, she shows that the principal dynamics have little, if anything, to do with globalization and much to do with the political context and historical framework of these cases. This book is a useful corrective to facile thinking about the relationship between the "global" and the "local" in the explanation of civil conflict. Neil MacFarlane, Lester B. Pearson Professor of International Relations and fellow at St. Anne´s College, Oxford University and chair of the Oxford Politics and International Relations Department.
Based on previously unexplored archival documentation, this book offers the first general overview of the history of Italian eugenics, not limited to the decades of Fascist regime, but instead ranging from the beginning of the 1900s to the first half of the 1970s. The Author discusses several fundamental themes of the comparative history of eugenics: the importance of the Latin eugenic model; the relationship between eugenics and fascism; the influence of Catholicism on the eugenic discourse and the complex links between genetics and eugenics. It examines the Liberal pre-fascist period and the post-WW2 transition from fascist and racial eugenics to medical and human genetics. As far as fascist eugenics is concerned, the book provides a refreshing analysis, considering Italian eugenics as the most important case-study in order to define Latin eugenics as an alternative model to its Anglo-American, German and Scandinavian counterparts. Analyses in detail the nature-nurture debate during the State racist campaign in fascist Italy (1938-1943) as a boundary tool in the contraposition between the different institutional, political and ideological currents of fascist racism.
Certain to engender debate in the media, especially in Ukraine itself, as well as the academic community. Using a wide selection of newspapers, journals, monographs, and school textbooks from different regions of the country, the book examines the sensitive issue of the changing perspectives - often shifting 180 degrees - on several events discussed in the new narratives of the Stalin years published in the Ukraine since the late Gorbachev period until 2005. These events were pivotal to Ukrainian history in the 20th century, including the Famine of 1932-33 and Ukrainian insurgency during the war years. This latter period is particularly disputed, and analyzed with regard to the roles of the OUN (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists) and the UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) during and after the war. Were these organizations "freedom fighters" or "collaborators"? To what extent are they the architects of the modern independent state? "This excellent book fills a longstanding void in literature on the politics of memory in Eastern Europe. Professor Marples has produced an innovative and courageous study of how postcommunist Ukraine is rewriting its Stalinist and wartime past by gradually but inconsistently substituting Soviet models with nationalist interpretations. Grounded in an attentive reading of Ukrainian scholarship and journalism from the last two decades, this book offers a balanced take on such sensitive issues as the Great Famine of 1932-33 and the role of the Ukrainian nationalist insurgents during World War II. Instead of taking sides in the passionate debates on these subjects, Marples analyzes the debates themselves as discursive sites where a new national history is being forged. Clearly written and well argued, this study will make a major impact both within and beyond academia." - Serhy Yekelchyk, University of Victoria
Before the publication of this book, Alaine Polcz was widely recognized as a psychologist ministering to the needs of disturbed and incurably ill children and their families, as the author of numerous articles and several books on thanatology, and as the
Based on the idea that there is a considerable difference between reality and discourse, the author points out that history is constantly reconstructed, adapted and sometimes mythicized from the perspectives of the present day, present states of mind and
Democracy thrives on social dialogue and collective search for solution. As a forum for new ideas and impulses the Körber-Foundation seeks with its projects to involve citizens actively in social discourses. The private, non-profit-making foundation provides a forum for involvement in politics, education, science and international communication. Citizens who take part in competitions and round table discussions organized by the foundation benefit in many ways: they can pass on knowledge, identify problems and initiate activities. These kinds of stimulus form the Körber-Foundation´s contribution to the everyday culture of democracy.
This is the second of the four-volume series, a daring project of CEU Press, presenting the most important texts that triggered and shaped the processes of nation-building in the many countries of Central and Southeast Europe. 67 texts, including hymns, manifestos, articles or extracts from lengthy studies exemplify the relation between Romanticism and the national movements in the cultural space ranging from Poland to the Ottoman Empire. Each text is accompanied by a presentation of the author, and by an analysis of the context in which the respective work was born. The end of the 18th century and first decades of the 19th were in many respects a watershed period in European history. The ideas of the Enlightenment and the dramatic convulsions of the French Revolution had shattered the old bonds and cast doubt upon the established moral and social norms of the old corporate society. In culture a new trend, Romanticism, was successfully asserting itself against Classicism and provided a new key for a growing number of activists to 're-imagine' their national community, reaching beyond the traditional frameworks of identification (such as the 'political nation', regional patriotism, or Christian universalism). The collection focuses on the interplay of Romantic cultural discourses and the shaping of national ideology throughout the 19th century, tracing the patterns of cultural transfer with Western Europe as well as the mimetic competition of national ideologies within the region.
This study analyzes the impact of the Czechoslovak crisis of 1968-1969 on the two major communist parties in the West: the Italian and French ones. Discusses the central strategic and ideological tensions which these parties needed to deal with: domestic
Rejecting the cliché about "weak identity and underdeveloped nationalism," Bekus argues for the co-existence of two parallel concepts of Belarusianness-the official and the alternative one-which mirrors the current state of the Belarusian people more accurately and allows for a different interpretation of the interconnection between the democratization and nationalization of Belarusian society. The book describes how the ethno-symbolic nation of the Belarusian nationalists, based on the cultural capital of the Golden Age of the Belarusian past (17th century) competes with the "nation" institutionalized and reified by the numerous civic rituals and social practices under the auspices of the actual Belarusian state. Comparing the two concepts not only provides understanding of the logic that dominates Belarusian society´s self-description models, but also enables us to evaluate the chances of alternative Belarusianness to win this unequal struggle over identity.
The last volume of the series presents 46 texts under the heading of "anti-modernism". Formed in a dynamic relationship with modernism, from the 1880s to the 1940s, and especially during the interwar period, the anti-modernist ideological constructions of national identification had a considerable impact on the political culture of our region. These texts rejected the linear vision of modernization as well as the liberal democratic institutional frameworks and searched instead for alternative models of politics. The Second World War and the communist takeover in most of these countries seemingly erased these ideological subcultures, who were often engaged in war-time pro-Nazi collaboration. However, their intellectual heritage proved more resilient and influenced the formation of "national communist" narratives in the 1960-70s, while after 1989 many of these references became actualized in the context of the post-communist search for ideological predecessors. "This volume, as the entire series, is a challenging collection of essential primary sources, accompanied by introductory essays and contextual analyses in the best senses of the term: their high level of scholarship demands the intelligent engagement of the reader throughout; it invites the educated elites of Eastern Europe to throw away the crutch of myth and half-truth when promoting or interrogating their unique national identity; it demands that scholars working in the Western humanities rethink widely-held assumptions about `Eastern Europe, what constitutes conservatism and progressiveness, and the idea of a `normal' path to a liberal modernity. The introduction proposes a concept of `anti-modernism' to categorize phenomena in Eastern Europe that may be difficult to grasp for those whose path to liberal democracy has not been blocked by decades of totalitarianism, since they evoke an atavistic rootedness (conservativism) but in a paradoxically futural spirit (modernism). As a result, the reader of whatever cultural background emerges with a more lucid feel for what it means to be Eastern European, modern, and human after the End of History." - Professor Roger Griffin, Oxford Brookes University
"In this book Prof Balcerowicz brings together 17 academic articles that summarise his research on the process of radical economic transformation... It is an impressive volume which makes a convincing case for the post-communist transition to be as rapid
This study addresses the relation of people to divine beings in contemporary and historical communities, as exemplified in three strands. One is a long tradition of visions of mysterious wayfarers in rural Spain who bring otherworldly news and help, including recent examples. Another treats the seeming vivification of religious images-statues, paintings, engravings, and photographs apparently exuding blood, sweat and tears in Spanish homes and churches in the early modern period and the revival of the phenomenon throughout Europe in the twentieth century. Of special interest is the third strand of the book: the transposition of medieval and early modern representations of the relations between humans and the divine into the modern art of photography. Christian presents a pictorial examination of the phenomenon with a large number of religious images, commercial postcards and family photographs from the first half of past century Europe.
This is a translation of one of very few Russian serfs' memoirs. Savva Purlevskii recollects his life in Russian serfdom and life of his grandparents, parents, and fellow villagers. He describes family and communal life and the serfs' daily interaction with landlords and authorities. Purlevskii came from an initially prosperous family that later became impoverished. Early in his childhood, he lost his father. Purlevskii did not have a chance to gain a formal education. He lived under serfdom until 1831 when at the age of 30 he escaped his servitude. Gorshkov's introduction provides some basic knowledge about Russian serfdom and draws upon the most recent scholarship. Notes provide references and general information about events, places and people mentioned in the memoirs. Besides its appeal to scholars of Russian history, peasant studies, or servile systems such as serfdom and slavery, the illustrations and the conversational style will make this book highly suitable for undergraduate and graduate classes. "A fascinating autobiography of a self-made serf-entrepreneur, originally published in 1877... The book - elegantly printed by the Central European University Press and illuminated with nineteenth-century miniatures of peasant life - will surely provide an attractive teaching material for the courses on pre-Reform Russian history, as well as a good read for all those interested in social history of Russia". - The Russian Review
How do museums and cinema shape the image of the Communist past in today´s Central and Eastern Europe? This volume is the first systematic analysis of how visual techniques are used to understand and put into context the former regimes. After history "ended" in the Eastern Bloc in 1989, museums and other memorials mushroomed all over the region. These efforts tried both to explain the meaning of this lost history, as well as to shape public opinion on their society´s shared post-war heritage. Museums and films made political use of recollections of the recent past, and employed selected museum, memorial, and media tools and tactics to make its political intent historically credible. Thirteen essays from scholars around the region take a fresh look at the subject as they address the strategies of fashioning popular perceptions of the recent past. "Books on the CEE transformations that deal with media and popular cultures should be welcomed. Past for the Eyes belongs to this extraordinary breed. The book is devoted to the visual representations of the socialist / communist past and the forms they took. The interconnected processes of visualization of the past, and the collective memory sedimentation are the main focus. The book brings together perspectives of linked but still distinctive ways of enquiry: visual studies, cultural studies, area studies, museum studies and contemporary history with its passion for ethnography and oral evidence.
A detailed academic treatise of the history of nationality in Tatarstan. The book demonstrates how state collapse and national revival influenced the divergence of worldviews among ex-Soviet people in Tatarstan, where a political movement for sovereignty
Historical revisionism, far from being restricted to small groups of `negationists,´ has galvanized debates in the realm of recent history. The studies in this book range from general accounts of the background of recent historical revisionism to focused
Addresses a critical analysis of major media policies in the European Union and Council of Europe at the period of profound changes affecting both media environments and use, as well as the logic of media policy-making and reconfiguration of traditional regulatory models. The analytical problem-related approach seems to better reflect a media policy process as an interrelated part of European integration, formation of European citizenship, and exercise of communication rights within the European communicative space. The question of normative expectations is to be compared in this case with media policy rationales, mechanisms of implementation (transposing rules from EU to national levels), and outcomes. Competent and experienced scholars of the subject describe and analyze the different patterns followed in the various countries, when attempting to adapt to the new conditions - technological, political and sociological (the media using habits of citizens). "Beata Klimkiewicz´s collection is nothing less than the timeliest book on the topic of European media policy and this for reasons that are intrinsic to the essence of most of the fourteen chapters. These chapters exemplify the continuing battle in regard to little regulation (some control) versus regulation (more control) versus overregulation (total control) and the realities that such choices engender; the continuing arguments over market media, public service media, and community media and how they should be regulated and shaped; and ultimately the quest for a new utopian European public sphere and equally utopian national media scenes in each EU member country. In well documented and argued chapters, western and eastern European scholars tackle issues such as the augmentation of the European public sphere; citizen access to and choices of information and news; regulations of content; developments in the blogosphere; the promotion of European "cultural diversity"; media and minors; media pluralism and diversity via public service broadcasting and its new functions and conceptualization; communication rights; and the governance shaping a European audiovisual landscape. As the EU enfolded many of the former communist countries into the bosom of the beautiful Europa, the ideational, conceptual, practical, and enforceability problems of media policies grew exponentially, as Klimkiewicz´s collection clearly demonstrates. The lessons from the overregulated, all-controlling policies of the now defunct Marxist-Leninist societies are yet to be internalized by the EU and the Council of Europe, it seems to me, and while they should seek to improve, as opposed to perfect, the European media world and public sphere, fewer policies that are less controlling and more responsive to the diverse realities of each member nation should be the order of the day. This book should be mandatory reading for students of the east European mass media and policymakers alike." - Slavic Review
This book interrogates the nature of anti-Americanism today and over the last century. It asks several questions: How do we define the phenomenon from different perspectives: political, social, and cultural? What are the historical sources and turning points of anti-Americanism in Europe and elsewhere? What are its links with anti-Semitic sentiment? Has anti-Americanism been beneficial or self-destructive to its "believers"? Finally, how has the United States responded and why? The authors, scholars from a multitude of countries, tackle the potential political consequences of anti-Americanism in Eastern and Central Europe, the region that has been perceived as strongly pro-American.
Art historian Éva Forgács's book is an unusual take on the Bauhaus. She examines the school as shaped by the great forces of history as well as the personal dynamism of its faculty and students. The book focuses on the idea of the Bauhaus - the notion that the artist should be involved in the technological innovations of mechanization and mass production - rather than on its artefacts. Founded in 1919 by the architect Walter Gropius and closed down by the Nazis in 1933, the Bauhaus had to struggle through the years of Weimar Germany not only with its political foes but also with the often-diverging personal ambitions and concepts within its own ranks. It is the inner conflicts and their solutions, the continuous modification of the original Bauhaus idea by politics within and without, that make the history of the school and Forgács's account of it dramatic.
"The list of contributors is impressive withnot a single dull chapter...; the editors are to be congratulated for making available such a stimulating and timely, if not timeless, collection" - Slavic Review "[T]his is a book that will serve many intellectual tastes and interests, and that will certainly prove thought provoking for anyone who reads it... I recommend it to anybody who wants to witness the analythical depth and span with which the meaning of 1989 can be approached." - Extremism & Democracy The tenth anniversary of the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe provides the starting point for this thought-provoking analysis. Between Past and Future reflects upon the past ten years and considers what lies ahead for the future. An international group of distinguished academics and public intellectuals, including former dissidents and active politicians, engage in a lively exchange on the antecedents, causes, contexts, meanings and legacies of the 1989 revolutions. At a crossroads between past and future, the contributors to this seminal volume address all the crucial issues -- liberal democracy and its enemies, modernity and discontent, economic reforms and their social impact, ethnicity, nationalism and religion, geopolitics, electoral systems and political power, European integration and the tragic demise of Yugoslavia. Based on the results of recent research on the ideologies behind one of the most dramatic systematic transformations in world history, and including contributions from some of the world's leading experts, Between Past and Future is an essential reference book for scholars and students of all levels, policy-makers, journalists and the general reader interested in the past and future prospects of Central & Eastern Europe