This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.
This book provides an economic perspective on the effects of food safety standards on international trade. Focusing on food safety regulation at an international level and private food safety standards, the authors use contemporary methodologies to analyze supply chain structures and organization as well as food-chain actors' strategies. They also evaluate the effects of these on both consumer health and developing countries' access to international markets. The book provides ideas, suggestions and policy recommendations for reconciling economic interests with consumer health, which will be of special interest to academics as well as to practitioners.
The Nato Advanced Study Institute ASI 981171 was organised at the European Scientific Institute of Archamps (ESI , Archamps France) from October 26 to November 8, 2005. Everyy ear in autumn ESI organises the European School of Medical Physics, which covers a large spectrum of topics, ranging from Medical Imaging to Radiotherapy, over a period of five weeks. Thanks to the Cooperative Science and Technologys ub programme of th e NATO Science Division, the first two weeks were replaced this year by the ASI course dedicated to "Optimising Detectors, Imaging & Computing Technologies from Nuclear Physics in General to Secur ity Applications". This allowed the participation of experts and students fr om 20 different countries, with diverse cultural background and professional experience (Africa, America, Asia, and Europe). A further positive outcome of NATO ASI participation is the publication of this book, which contains the lectures series contributed by speakers during the ASI weeks. We hope it will be a reference book in Medical Imaging, addressing an audience of young medical physicists everywhere in the world, who are wishing to review the physics foundations of the relevant technologies, catch up with the state of the art and look ahead into future developments in their field. The ASI course was structured in two pa rts, defined by the use or absence of ionising radiation in the medical imaging techniques of interest.
This volume starts with an elementary introduction covering stem cell methodologies used to produce specific types of neurons, possibilities for their therapeutic use, and warnings of technical problems. In addition the authors report successes in achieving the derivation of a specific type of neuron. The dopamine neuron offers an important example and is discussed in more detail. Additional chapters cover problems obviously approachable with cells derived from stem cells, including their need in surgeries for pituitary cancers. The last chapter provides an overview of this particular field of research and presents a vision for its future directions.
This book brings together leading investigators who represent various aspects of brain dynamics with the goal of presenting state-of-the-art current progress and address future developments. The individual chapters cover several fascinating facets of contemporary neuroscience from elementary computation of neurons, mesoscopic network oscillations, internally generated assembly sequences in the service of cognition, large-scale neuronal interactions within and across systems, the impact of sleep on cognition, memory, motor-sensory integration, spatial navigation, large-scale computation and consciousness. Each of these topics require appropriate levels of analyses with sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolution of neuronal activity in both local and global networks, supplemented by models and theories to explain how different levels of brain dynamics interact with each other and how the failure of such interactions results in neurologic and mental disease. While such complex questions cannot be answered exhaustively by a dozen or so chapters, this volume offers a nice synthesis of current thinking and work-in-progress on micro-, meso- and macro- dynamics of the brain.
Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the field of circadian biology. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields, including endocrinology, neurosciences, cancer, and behavior. By integrating a circadian view within the fields of endocrinology and metabolism, researchers will be able to reveal many, yet-unsuspected aspects of how organisms cope with changes in the environment and subsequent control of homeostasis. This field is opening new avenues in our understanding of metabolism and endocrinology. A panel of the most distinguished investigators in the field gathered together to discuss the present state and the future of the field. The editors trust that this volume will be of use to those colleagues who will be picking up the challenge to unravel how the circadian clock can be targeted for the future development of specific pharmacological strategies toward a number of pathologies.
This book has brought together leading investigators who work in the new arena of brain connectomics. This includes `macro-connectome' efforts to comprehensively chart long-distance pathways and functional networks; `micro-connectome' efforts to identify every neuron, axon, dendrite, synapse, and glial process within restricted brain regions; and `meso-connectome' efforts to systematically map both local and long-distance connections using anatomical tracers. This book highlights cutting-edge methods that can accelerate progress in elucidating static `hard-wired' circuits of the brain as well as dynamic interactions that are vital for brain function. The power of connectomic approaches in characterizing abnormal circuits in the many brain disorders that afflict humankind is considered. Experts in computational neuroscience and network theory provide perspectives needed for synthesizing across different scales in space and time. Altogether, this book provides an integrated view of the challenges and opportunities in deciphering brain circuits in health and disease.
Public spending on infrastructure plays an important role in promoting economic growth and poverty alleviation. Empirical studies unequivocally show that under-investment in infrastructure limit economic growth. At the same time, numerous other studies have shown that investment in infrastructure can be a highly effective tool in fighting poverty reduction1. In that context, the financing of infrastructure has been a critical element of most economic growth and poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, since the start of this millennium. This book provides a comparative analysis of the aggregate and sectoral implications of higher spending on infrastructure in three very different Asian countries: China, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Particular attention is paid to the role of alternative financing mechanisms for increasing public infrastructure investment, namely distortionary and non-distortionary means of financing. The book will be of interest to scholars and policy-makers concerned with economic growth in developing countries.
Overall, this work identifies key points to be taken into account when drawing up guidelines that govern the use of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops in order to preserve the effectiveness of this innovation over time. This multidisciplinary expert report, based on an international literature review, assesses the effects of the cultivation of crops possessing HT traits. HT crops may appear to be useful complementary tools when farmers are facing certain difficult weed-management situations or in the context of a diversification of weed-control strategies. Their repeated use, however, can rapidly induce changes in the weed flora that can constitute more complex challenges in terms of weed control. Issues coming up with the development of agricultural production systems including HT crops are the objects of this expert report: what are the perceptions of these varieties by society and the reasons for their adoption by farmers? Are the savings on herbicides promoted by seed companies long-lasting? Can the cultivation of HT crops impact biodiversity?
This timely text/reference presents a comprehensive overview of fault tolerance techniques for high-performance computing (HPC).The text opens with a detailed introduction to the concepts of checkpoint protocols and scheduling algorithms, prediction, replication, silent error detection and correction, together with some application-specific techniques such as algorithm-based fault tolerance. Emphasis is placed on analytical performance models. This is then followed by a review of general-purpose techniques, including several checkpoint and rollback recovery protocols. Relevant execution scenarios are also evaluated and compared through quantitative models.Topics and features: includes self-contained contributions from an international selection of preeminent experts; provides a survey of resilience methods and performance models; examines the various sources for errors and faults in large-scale systems, detailing their characteristics, with a focus on modeling, detection and prediction; reviews the spectrum of techniques that can be applied to design a fault-tolerant message passing interface; investigates different approaches to replication, comparing these to the traditional checkpoint-recovery approach; discusses the challenge of energy consumption of fault-tolerance methods in extreme-scale systems, proposing a methodology to estimate such energy consumption.This authoritative volume is essential reading for all researchers and graduate students involved in high-performance computing.
This book deals with slums as a specific question and a central focus in urban planning. It radically reverses the official version of the history of world cities as narrated during decades: slums are not at the margin of the contemporary process of urbanization; they are an integral part of it. Taking slums as its central focus and regarding them as symptomatic of the ongoing transformations of the city, the book moves to the very heart of the problem in urban planning. The book presents 16 case studies that form the basis for a theory of the slum and a concrete development manual for the slum. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing slums presented in this volume enables researchers to look at social and economic dimensions as well as at the constructive and spatial aspects of slums. Both at the scientific and the pedagogical level, it allows one to recognize the efforts of the slum's residents, key players in the past, and present development of their neighborhoods, and to challenge public and private stakeholders on priorities decided in urban planning, and their mismatches when compared to the findings of experts and the demands of users. Whether one is a planner, an architect, a developer or simply an inhabitant of an emerging city, the presence of slums in one's environment - at the same time central and nonetheless incongruous - makes a person ask questions. Today, it is out of the question to be satisfied with the assumption of the marginality of slums, or of the incongruous nature of their existence. Slums are now fully part of the urban landscape, contributing to the identity and the urbanism of cities and their stakeholders.
Offshore drilling and constructions require exact knowledge of the geophysical properties of the seabed and sub-seabed, as unexpected objects can slow down or halt projects. This book presents the state-of-the-art in acoustic exploration of the seabed and sub-seabed, from initial designs in the 1980s to commercial contracting and operation of the Acoustic CorerTM in the last decade. The Acoustic CorerTM is a high-definition commercial acoustic sub-bottom imaging system, producing an "acoustic core" within which sub-seabed sedimentary characteristics and discrete buried objects larger than 0.5 m can be identified and mapped. It makes use of the innovative JYG-cross design, inspired by seismic reflection and uses Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) multi-angle scattering in and within the seabed to deliver unprecedented imagery. This book was written by the inventor of these concepts, a known specialist in seabed acoustics, with help from an experienced academic and author. It is intended first and foremost as a "how-to" guide for offshore industries looking at techniques to make the installation of different types of structures safe and efficient.
This book presents an updated view of the Philippines, focusing on thematic issues rather than a description region by region. Topics include typhoons, population growth, economic difficulties, agrarian reform, migration as an economic strategy, the growth of Manila, the Muslim question in Mindanao, the South China Sea tensions with China and the challenges of risk, vulnerability and sustainable development.
Homeostasis involves a delicate interplay between generative and degenerative processes to maintain a stable internal environment. In biological systems, equilibrium is established and controlled through a series of negative feedback mechanisms driven by a range of signal transduction processes. Failures in these complex communication pathways result in instability leading to disease. Cancer represents a state of imbalance caused by an excess of cell proliferation. In contrast, neurodegeneration is a consequence of excessive cell loss in the nervous system. Both of these disorders exhort profound tolls on humanity and they have been subject to a great deal of research designed to ameliorate this suffering. For the most part, the topics have been viewed as distinct and rarely do opportunities arise for transdisciplinary discussions among experts in both fields. However, cancer and neurodegeneration represent yin-yang counterpoints in the regulation of cell growth, and it is reasonable to hypothesize that key regulatory events mediated by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer may also affect neurodegenerative processes
The therapeutic potential of the use of adipose stem cells in regenerative medicine has been increasingly recognized, and in recent years concrete clinical benefits have accrued as these cells have been explored for a variety of applications. This readable and informative textbook tracks the progress that has been made in this fascinating new area of biomedicine. All aspects of the subject are considered, with particular attention to adipose cell biology, adipose tissue engineering strategies, and the diverse clinical applications of adipose stem cells. Funding issues, industrial approaches, regulatory challenges, and future directions are also examined. The two editors have vast experience in the field and have chosen leading experts from different countries to write on each topic. This book will excite the interest of all researchers, clinicians, and students wishing to gain an in-depth understanding of adipose stem cells and their flourishing role in regenerative medicine.
This volume provides the reader with a pathophysiological perspective on the role of CNS in puberty and adolescence, starting from genetic/molecular aspects, going through structural/imaging changes and leading to physical/behavioral characteristics. Therefore, renowned investigators involved in both animal and human research shared recent data as well as overall appraisal of relevant questions around CNS control of puberty and adolescence. No doubt that this volume will inspire those involved in either scientific research or clinical practice or both in the fascinating field of puberty and adolescence.
Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews, and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption by the also rapidly-emerging fields of medical systems biology and 3D tissue imaging indicate.This work describes how digital pathology not only has the potential to dramatically impact medical education and the delivery of health care, but also to exert an immensely positive influence worldwide, including in countries and regions that normally fail to benefit from such technological advances.
Traditionally, neuroscience has considered the nervous system as an isolated entity and largely ignored influences of the social environments in which humans and many animal species live. However, there is mounting evidence that the social environment affects behavior across species, from microbes to humans.This volume brings together scholars who work with animal and human models of social behavior to discuss the challenges and opportunities in this interdisciplinary academic field.
The authors address in particular the role of hormones and their links with other maternal environmental mediators in developmental programming. The crucial nature of the placenta as an interface and target between maternal and foetal environments is addressed. Emphasis is made on the emerging science of epigenetics as a potential explanation for how environmental events that occur during brief windows of development may exert effects that impact upon somatic cells through many rounds of mitosis for much of the life span of the subsequent organism.
This volume contributes to the on-going legal discussion on pressing procedural and substantial law issues in the ambit of international human rights and civil liberties. While the 20th century has seen the true awakening of human rights, the 21st century poses new challenges to this ever-unfolding area of law. Not only do international tribunals and quasi-tribunals worldwide and domestic US and European continental courts have to deal with increasing numbers of complaints and petitions from individuals and groups on a vast array of societal problems, the legal issues put to them are sometimes extremely difficult to resolve as they relate to very sensitive issues. This book examines issues ranging from the status of human rights under US law to the status of the ECHR in the broader context of international law. It looks at the role of positive obligations in the case law of the Strasbourg Court, as well the impact of its case-law on childbirth and push-back operation towards boat people, but also at the growing unwillingness of ECHR member states to cooperate with the Strasbourg Court. It explores the new frontiers in US Capital punishment litigation, the first case before the International Criminal Court and the legal effect of judgments of the European Court on third states.?
Whenweagreedtoshareallofourpreparationofexercisesinsamplingtheory to create a book, we were not aware of the scope of the work. It was indeed necessary to compose the information, type out the compilations, standardise the notations and correct the drafts. It is fortunate that we have not yet measured the importance of this project, for this work probably would never have been attempted! In making available this collection of exercises, we hope to promote the teaching of sampling theory for which we wanted to emphasise its diversity. The exercises are at times purely theoretical while others are originally from real problems, enabling us to approach the sensitive matter of passing from theory to practice that so enriches survey statistics. The exercises that we present were used as educational material at the École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information (ENSAI), where we had successively taught sampling theory. We are not the authors of all the exercises. In fact, some of them are due to Jean-Claude Deville and Laurent Wilms. We thank them for allowing us to reproduce their exercises. It is also possible that certain exercises had been initially conceived by an author that we have not identi?ed. Beyondthe contribution of our colleagues, and in all cases, we do not consider ourselves to be the lone authors of these exercises:they actually form part of a common heritagefrom ENSAI that has been enriched and improved due to questions from students and the work of all the demonstrators of the sampling course at ENSAI.
Biological membranes play a central role in cell structure, shape and functions. However, investigating the membrane bilayer has proved to be difficult due to its highly dynamic and anisotropic structure, which generates steep gradients at the nanometer scale. Due to the decisive impact of recently developed fluorescence-based techniques, tremendous advances have been made in the last few years in our understanding of membrane characteristics and functions. In this context, the present book illustrates some of these major advances by collecting review articles written by highly respected experts. The book is organized in three parts, the first of which deals with membrane probes and model membranes. The second part describes the use of advanced quantitative and high-resolution techniques to explore the properties of biological membranes, illustrating the key progress made regarding membrane organization, dynamics and interactions. The third part is focused on the investigation of membrane proteins using the same techniques, and notably on the membrane receptors that play a central role in signaling pathways and therapeutic strategies. All chapters provide comprehensive information on membranes and their exploration for beginners in the field and advanced researchers alike.
The health of the proteome depends upon protein quality control to regulate the proper synthesis, folding, translocation, and clearance of proteins. The cell is challenged constantly by environmental and physiological stress, aging, and the chronic expressions of disease associated misfolded proteins. Substantial evidence supports the hypothesis that the expression of damaged proteins initiates a cascade of molecular events that leads to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and other diseases of protein conformation.