The Nato Advanced Study Institute ASI 981171 was organised at the European Scientific Institute of Archamps (ESI , Archamps France) from October 26 to November 8, 2005. Everyy ear in autumn ESI organises the European School of Medical Physics, which covers a large spectrum of topics, ranging from Medical Imaging to Radiotherapy, over a period of five weeks. Thanks to the Cooperative Science and Technologys ub programme of th e NATO Science Division, the first two weeks were replaced this year by the ASI course dedicated to "Optimising Detectors, Imaging & Computing Technologies from Nuclear Physics in General to Secur ity Applications". This allowed the participation of experts and students fr om 20 different countries, with diverse cultural background and professional experience (Africa, America, Asia, and Europe). A further positive outcome of NATO ASI participation is the publication of this book, which contains the lectures series contributed by speakers during the ASI weeks. We hope it will be a reference book in Medical Imaging, addressing an audience of young medical physicists everywhere in the world, who are wishing to review the physics foundations of the relevant technologies, catch up with the state of the art and look ahead into future developments in their field. The ASI course was structured in two pa rts, defined by the use or absence of ionising radiation in the medical imaging techniques of interest.
Whenweagreedtoshareallofourpreparationofexercisesinsamplingtheory to create a book, we were not aware of the scope of the work. It was indeed necessary to compose the information, type out the compilations, standardise the notations and correct the drafts. It is fortunate that we have not yet measured the importance of this project, for this work probably would never have been attempted! In making available this collection of exercises, we hope to promote the teaching of sampling theory for which we wanted to emphasise its diversity. The exercises are at times purely theoretical while others are originally from real problems, enabling us to approach the sensitive matter of passing from theory to practice that so enriches survey statistics. The exercises that we present were used as educational material at the École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information (ENSAI), where we had successively taught sampling theory. We are not the authors of all the exercises. In fact, some of them are due to Jean-Claude Deville and Laurent Wilms. We thank them for allowing us to reproduce their exercises. It is also possible that certain exercises had been initially conceived by an author that we have not identi?ed. Beyondthe contribution of our colleagues, and in all cases, we do not consider ourselves to be the lone authors of these exercises:they actually form part of a common heritagefrom ENSAI that has been enriched and improved due to questions from students and the work of all the demonstrators of the sampling course at ENSAI.
People are living longer and most countries are experiencing unprecedented increases in the number and proportion of their elderly populations, resulting from declines in mortality, lower fertility, and the baby boom cohorts entering old age. A fundamental issue facing the global community is meeting the challenges of population aging and achieving healthy aging to maintain an active older population and reduce the number of disabled people. Healthy aging is obviously a major goal of all societies and is the central theme of this book.
The focus of this book is on theoretical issues and empirical findings related to trends and determinants of healthy aging, including factors related to "healthy longevity" of the oldest-old, aged 80 and over. The group is the most rapidly increasing elderly sub-population and is most likely to need assistance in daily living in all countries. Chapters include both longitudinal and cross-sectional data from North America, Europe, and Asia in country-specific studies and cross-national comparisons.
We organized the twenty chapters into four parts. Part I focuses on the definition, components, concepts, measurements, and determinants of healthy aging, and discusses the trends and patterns of disability and healthy life expectancy at the macro level. Part II addresses individual healthy aging, including its biological and socio-demographic aspects. Part III focuses on issues concerning the family and healthy aging, and Part IV explores formal and informal care for healthy aging through governmental policy interventions and community service programs.
Auf Basis der Strategieprozesstheorie untersucht Valéry Yves d'Aujourd'hui Projektentstehungsmuster im zentralen Forschungsbereich der Automobilindustrie. Er zeigt anhand einer tiefgehenden Organisationsanalyse auf, wie neue Projekte innerhalb einer Organisation entstehen und identifiziert drei Entstehungsmuster für Forschungsprojekte in derselben Forschungsorganisation: Standardprojekte, Experteninitiativen und Vorstandsaufträge. Sowohl der Mechanismus dieser Projektentstehungsmuster als auch ihre Wirkung auf die Innovationskraft sind unterschiedlich. Als Implikation wird deshalb eine explizite Frderung situationsadäquater Projektentstehungsmuster empfohlen.
Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt Wege und Mglichkeiten zur Gestaltung der Textilproduktion im Rahmen des Zukunftsprojekts Industrie 4.0. Dazu werden relevante Forschungsthemen in der Textilbranche identifiziert und exemplarisch für drei Felder Lsungen konzeptioniert, entwickelt und implementiert. Im Anschluss erfolgt eine Bewertung der Lsungen, in der unter anderem die Wirtschaftlichkeit betrachtet wird. Fragestellungen zum Transfer des Wissens in die Unternehmen runden die Arbeit ab.
This book explores Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA) from the perspectives of statistical mechanics, probability theory, computational biology and computer science. PCA are extensions of the well-known Cellular Automata models of complex systems, characterized by random updating rules. Thanks to their probabilistic component, PCA offer flexible computing tools for complex numerical constructions, and realistic simulation tools for phenomena driven by interactions among a large number of neighboring structures. PCA are currently being used in various fields, ranging from pure probability to the social sciences and including a wealth of scientific and technological applications. This situation has produced a highly diversified pool of theoreticians, developers and practitioners whose interaction is highly desirable but can be hampered by differences in jargon and focus. This book - just as the workshop on which it is based - is an attempt to overcome these difference and foster interest among newcomers and interaction between practitioners from different fields. It is not intended as a treatise, but rather as a gentle introduction to the role and relevance of PCA technology, illustrated with a number of applications in probability, statistical mechanics, computer science, the natural sciences and dynamical systems. As such, it will be of interest to students and non-specialists looking to enter the field and to explore its challenges and open issues.