The book details the recent and exciting developments on various fronts in the textile field with regard to novel and innovative functionalities, as well as their applications in various industries. Technical textiles are used in various industries for a host of purposes and applications. Recent developments in novel and innovative functionalities to textiles include easy-to-clean or dirt-repellent, flame retardancy, anti-bacterial, and fog-harvesting properties. Textiles for electronics based on graphene, CNTs and other nanomaterials, conductive textiles, textiles for sensor function, textile-fixed catalysts, textiles for batteries and energy storage, textiles as substrates for tissue engineering, and textiles for O/W separation are prevalent as well. All this development has been made possible through adopting novel ways for finishing textiles, e.g., by appropriate surface modification techniques, and utilizing biomimetic concepts borrowed from nature. This unique book is divided into four parts: Part 1: Recent Developments/Current Challenges in Textile Finishing; Part 2: Surface Modification Techniques for Textiles; Part 3: Innovative Functionalities of Textiles; Part 4: Fiber-Reinforced Composites. The topics covered include: Antimicrobial textile finishes; flame retardant textile finishing; "self-cleaning" or easy-to-clean textiles; metallization of textiles; atmospheric pressure plasma, and UV-based photochemical surface modification of textiles; tunable wettability of textiles; 3D textile structures for fog harvesting; textile-fixed catalysts; medical textiles as substrates for tissue engineering; and fiber-reinforced "green" or "greener" biocomposites and the relevance of fiber/matrix adhesion.