This book presents lessons learnt from Japan's past, in relation to coastal waters, industrial pollutants and concentrated urban populations. It examines ecosystem damage and pollution in coastal sea areas and addresses the question: What is the present status of Japanese estuaries from the view point of eutrophication and oligotrophication? The authors describe three typical situations, namely eutrophication problems in Tokyo Bay, oligotrophication problems in the Seto Inland Sea, and the disappearance of hypoxia in Dokai Bay. Readers will learn how legal controls on Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN) loads have played an important role in each of these three bays. They will see that the results of the application of the law differ among the three bays as the characteristics of material cycling are different. The roles of community activities, water related technology development and local characteristics emerge, as responses to problems of environmental deterioration and future tasks are all investigated in this publication. The book will appeal to anyone with an interest in maintaining healthy estuaries, or in coastal water environment affairs and governing systems.
The author proposed the satoumi concept, analogous to the satoyama concept on land, as "coastal sea with high biodiversity and productivity in harmony with human interaction" in 1998. The concept for environmental conservation in the coastal seas has been widely accepted and was included in the Japanese national policy of "Strategy for Establishment of an Environmental Nation" in 2007. This book is a translation of the author's Japanese book (2010) in response to concerns and questions about satoumi, including: Does biodiversity increase as a result of human interaction in coastal seas? Do the economics of fishing villages need to be considered in detail? What legal support is necessary for the creation of satoumi? Is there a relation between the concepts of God and Nature in satoumi? What is the relationship between fishermen and city dwellers? Chapter 1 presents the basic concept of satoumi. In Chapter 2 the relation between biodiversity and human interaction, economic problems related to satoumi, legal support for satoumi creation, satoumi from the point of view of landscape ecology, and the relation between society and science with regard to the satoumi movement are discussed. In Chapter 3 examples of satoumi creation in Japan are presented, and in Chapter 4 the overseas dissemination of the satoumi concept is introduced, with Chapter 5 providing the conclusion. Chapter 1 presents the basic concept of satoumi. In Chapter 2 the relation between biodiversity and human interaction, economic problems related to satoumi, legal support for satoumi creation, satoumi from the point of view of landscape ecology, and the relation between society and science with regard to the satoumi movement are discussed. In Chapter 3 examples of satoumi creation in Japan are presented, and in Chapter 4 the overseas dissemination of the satoumi concept is introduced, with Chapter 5 providing the conclusion.
This book guides readers to the new concept of "Satoumi" and explains how its practice works to solve challenges in complex social-ecological systems of coastal areas. The book describes the significance of Satoumi Science as a transdisciplinary process. It starts with introducing the definition of Satoumi, highlights the important distinction between active measures (direct actions to improve ecosystem functions and services) and passive measures (a variety of management activities), and presents the concept of Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge (ILEK) as a knowledge base for Satoumi activities. It also introduces residential researchers and bilateral knowledge translators as the key actors of Satoumi co-creation through the transdisciplinary processes. The concept of Satoumi goes beyond the idea of protecting pristine nature by eliminating humans. It is about creating coastal environments where humans closely connect with the sea, which leads to the effective conservation and sustainable management of various natural resources and ecosystem services. This book will be of high interest to managers, governments, environmental groups, and the research community. Chapters cover current and emerging concerns, such as over- and under-use of natural resources, restoration of damaged ecosystems, and co-creation of new relations between humans and coastal seas, from transdisciplinary approaches to tackle with complex and 'wicked' challenges of coastal social-ecological systems.