Universal Logic is not a new logic, but a general theory of logics, considered as mathematical structures. The name was introduced about ten years ago, but the subject is as old as the beginning of modern logic. It was revived after the flowering of thousands of new logics during the last thirty years: there was a need for a systematic theory of logics to put some order in this chaotic multiplicity. The present book contains recent works on universal logic by first-class researchers from all around the world. The book is full of new and challenging ideas that will guide the future of this exciting subject. It will be of interest for people who want to better understand what logic is. It will help those who are lost in the jungle of heterogeneous logical systems to find a way. Tools and concepts are provided here for those who want to study classes of already existing logics or want to design and build new ones.
The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.
This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world.
The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.
The theory of oppositions based on Aristotelian foundations of logic has been pictured in a striking square diagram which can be understood and applied in many different ways having repercussions in various fields: epistemology, linguistics, mathematics, sociology, physics. The square can also be generalized in other two-dimensional or multi-dimensional objects extending in breadth and depth the original Aristotelian theory. The square of opposition from its origin in antiquity to the present day continues to exert a profound impact on the development of deductive logic. Since 10 years there is a new growing interest for the square due to recent discoveries and challenging interpretations. This book presents a collection of previously unpublished papers by high level specialists on the square from all over the world.